Human Development

The Division of Human Development in the School of Education and Human Development offers upper-division undergraduate and graduate programs intended to facilitate and enhance an individual's academic, professional, and personal development.

   The division welcomes studentsespecially adults, non-traditional students, and community college transfer studentswho are attracted to self-directed and interdisciplinary study in the area of human development. It particularly promotes lifelong learning and development that will enable graduates to become problem-solvers and decision-makers in their chosen careers.

   Every effort is made to assist graduates of community colleges, as well as adult residents who may have begun their college careers elsewhere, to complete their bachelor's degree through the Division of Human Development programs. Policies concerning transfer credits, residency requirements, and credit for various forms of off-campus study have been carefully designed to encourage students and to facilitate their individual plans, while ensuring a meaningful degree program.

    The division offers undergraduate degree programs leading to the bachelor of science in applied social sciences and the bachelor of arts in social sciences. In both programs, the division focuses on the following educational goals and learning outcomes: critical inquiry, written and oral communication skills, social perspective, multicultural and global perspec tives, social responsibility, empowerment, and self-directed learning.

   The graduate program leads to the master of arts in social sciences (MASS) degree. It is a flexible interdisciplinary program designed primarily for community adult students with a variety of academic, professional, and personal interests.

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Admission

The procedure for candidates applying for admission to the School of Education and Human Development is essentially the same as for other students applying for admission to the University. Specific information can be found in the general section on admission in this Bulletin.
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Undergraduate Academic Policies

The school generally follows the academic policies announced in this Bulletin; however, students should be aware of the following policies pertinent to SEHD undergraduates only. Students are expected to be familiar with and to observe the regulations in this section.

   All matriculated students follow the requirements for graduation listed in the Bulletin current at the time they are admitted to the degree program. However, students who interrupt enrollments for more than two consecutive semesters are governed by the Bulletin in effect when they are readmitted.

   Upon the advisor's recommendation and an approved petition through the Academic Standards Committee, students may elect a later Bulletin under which they fulfill these degree requirements; however, they may not use a combination of requirements from different Bulletins. When courses required in older Bulletins are no longer offered, or in other special cases, course substitution may be made with the approval of the Academic Standards Committee.

Program Load and Planning

The term "full-time student" is applied to a person carrying 12 credits or more. The maximum number of credits a student may take, without the special approval of the advisor and division director, is 18.

   A student may drop below 12 credits without permission and be classified as a part-time student.

   Students are enrolled in a major when accepted into the school. In addition to their assigned faculty advisor, the SEHD academic advisor, peer advisors, and the Human Development Division director provide assistance in program planning for students.

Credit by Examination and Nontraditional Means

A maximum of 30 credits may be granted for credit by examination and for other educational experiences through military, industrial, or professional programs that have been assessed by appropriate organizations such as those contained in A Guide to Educational Programs in Noncollegiate Organizations and similar publications.

Grade Policies

Grading System

Students taking SEHD undergraduate courses are graded in one of two ways: 1) A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D, F; or 2) P/F. Under the normal grading system, students choose the first option. However, undergraduates in SEHD may elect the pass/fail option for a total of four courses while a student at Binghamton University and receive a P (pass) or F (fail) rather than a traditional grade. Courses taken for a P/F option may not be used to complete major requirements or General Education requirements. Mandatory pass/fail courses do not count as part of the four total courses. A course taken on the P/F option will be calculated into the student's grade point average only if the student receives an F.

    The grading option for a course may be changed (either from normal to P/F, or vice versa) at any time up to the last day for dropping courses, usually during the ninth week of the semester.

Repeating Courses

Students may retake courses in which they have received a passing grade by submitting a special petition to the faculty member teaching the course and the SEHD general academic advisor. This provision allows a student to demonstrate mastery of a given subject matter most notably (but not exclusively) in foundation courses, on which successful performance in later courses may depend.

   If approved, the repeated course does not count toward rate of progress. That is, when a student repeats a course previously passed, both grades will appear on the transcript, but only the first grade will be counted in the GPA calculations for rate-of-progress purposes.

    Students may retake courses in which they have received a failing grade; they are not required to do so by SEHD, although major requirements may dictate otherwise. When a student repeats a course previously failed, both grades appear on the transcript, and both will be counted in the GPA. Students are encouraged to speak with the SEHD general academic advisor as they make their decision about repeating any failed course.

Notation Of  Incomplete

A notation of incomplete, rather than a grade, may be reported by the instructor when a student has made substantial progress, but has not been able to complete a course. In addition, the student must have a valid reason, because of illness or other justifiable circum stances, for requesting an incomplete. The questions of substantial progress, potential to pass the course, and a valid reason for the request will be decided by the instructor. When requesting an Incomplete, the student must:

1) Complete the "Contract for Fulfilling an Incomplete" form, which is signed by the student and the instructor. 

2) Specify in the contract how the course will be completed, by what date the work will be completed, and specifically list all outstanding assignments (tests, papers, presentations) to be completed.

3) Submit the contract to the SEHD general academic advisor, who will ensure that the student is in compliance with Division of Human Development rules governing the number of incomplete credits a student may carry at one time. A student may not carry more than eight credits of incompletes at any time.

4) When necessary, include the signature of any additional instructor needed for successful completion of the course. This circumstance may occur when the original faculty member is on sabbatical or no longer teaching the course. A student must first obtain the secondary instructor's signature before having the original instructor sign the form.

    An incomplete will become an F at the end of the semester following that in which the incomplete was granted, unless a "Change of Grade" form is submitted by the instructor. It is the student's responsibility to ascertain that the coursework has been completed according to the contract, and the new grade is submitted by the instructor. An extension of the deadline must be approved by the division director on a "Request for Extension of Incomplete Grade in an Undergraduate Course" form, and will only be approved in highly unusual circumstances.

Withdrawal from a course

If a student withdraws from a course after the official deadline to drop a course, the instructor may assign a grade of WP (withdrawn passing) or WF (withdrawn failing). The grade of WP does not count as a course taken. A WF is equivalent to an F.

Grade Changes

No changes from one letter grade to another and no extensions of an Incomplete are permitted after 12 months from the date of the last day of class in the semester in which a course was offered. However, faculty are required to keep graded work not returned to students for only one semester following the end of the course.

Academic Standing

To remain in good academic standing, students enrolled in degree programs are expected to make satisfactory progress toward the degree. In SEHD, satisfactory progress is defined as maintaining a grade-point average (GPA) of 2.0 in all courses taken (both within and outside of SEHD). Failure to maintain the minimum grade-point average results in academic probation.

Academic probation does not imply either suspension or dismissal and does not preclude students from registering or receiving financial aid. Standards for financial aid eligibility are described in the Financial Information section of this Bulletin.

The grade-point average is calculated on a 4.0 system using the following grade-point equivalents.
A = 4.0  C+ = 2.3 
A- = 3.7  C = 2.0 
B+ = 3.3 C- = 1.7
B = 3.0 D = 1.0
B- = 2.7  F = 0.0 
 

Full-time students normally complete a degree program in SEHD in approximately 10 semesters. Review of students' academic progress is made at the end of each semester excluding summer session. Students must have a 2.0 cumulative grade-point average (GPA) to graduate; those falling below a 2.0 will be placed on probation.

   Students considered to be making satisfactory progress if their cumulative GPA meets the criteria listed below. Those not meeting the criteria will be subject to suspension. Upon expiration of the suspension period, suspended students are automatically granted readmission upon application to the Undergraduate Admissions Office and are placed under an academic contract for that semester. Students who are readmitted after suspension and again fall below the stated criteria are subject to permanent dismissal from the school.

Exception for First-Semester Transfer Students

First-semester transfer students who have a cumulative GPA of 1.5 or more, but are under the minimum GPA listed below, will be placed on probation and deemed to be making satisfactory progress. Students transferring in more than 34 credits and attaining a Binghamton University GPA of less than 1.5 will be subject to suspension. 

Hours Passed and Advanced Standing Required Cumulative GPA 
1-34* 1.440 
35-51  1.625 
52-68 1.715 
69-85 1.800 
86 -102 1.875 
103-119 1.950
120 + 2.000
*Exclusive of first-term freshmen with fewer than 18 hours passed including advanced standing, and part-time students with fewer than 12 hours attempted at Binghamton University. 

Dean's List

To qualify for the SEHD dean's list at the end of the fall or spring semesters, students must have a 3.5 or better semester grade-point average and have no missing or incomplete grades. Recognition is given for each semester in which students meet these criteria. The award is noted on the transcript.

Graduation With Honors

Students with outstanding academic records receive honors upon graduation. To qualify, students must meet the cumulative grade-point averages specified below, have earned at least 32 SEHD credit hours, with a normal grading option, and have no missing grades or incompletes. Honors are awarded as follows:

a) 3.50­3.69 GPA: Cum laude
b) 3.70­3.84 GPA: Magna cum laude
c) 3.85­4.00 GPA: Summa cum laude

The appropriate graduation honors are indicated on the diploma and on the final transcript.

Withdrawal and Readmission

If students who withdraw from the School of Education and Human Development wish to remain in good standing, they must follow a formal withdrawal procedure. Mere absence from class does not constitute withdrawal. Withdrawal applications may be obtained from the Registrar's Office or Academic Advising Office either in person or through the mail. A grade of W is assigned when the student has withdrawn from all courses and thus from the University. Grades of W do not count as courses taken.

   SEHD applies the same withdrawal and readmission policies as established for the University, except that SEHD students may drop below a three-course program without permis sion.

   Undergraduate students must apply for readmission through the Undergraduate Admissions Office.

Grievance Procedure

See your faculty advisor, the SEHD academic advisor, or your division director if you have a concern which you have not been able to resolve regarding your academic program or particular courses/professors. You may request a copy of the SEHD Grievance Procedure from any of the above or the Dean's Office.

Financial Aid

School of Education and Human Development students are eligible to participate in the University's financial aid program. Aid is available to full-time and selected part-time matriculated students. Students interested in obtaining financial aid should contact the student financial aid and employment office as soon as possible to determine their eligibility.

Activities and Student Services

All SEHD students, matriculated or nonmatriculated, are eligible to receive the services provided for all students at Binghamton and to participate in the various student activities. Students should be familiar with the Bulletin sections that deal with services for students and student activities.

Awards and Prizes

See "Honors and Awards" in the Academic Policies section of this Bulletin.
 

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Undergraduate Major Programs

The Division of Human Development offers two undergraduate degrees: the BA in social sciences and the BS in applied social sciences. These programs share two required courses and four content areas.

Degree Requirements

To qualify for a baccalaureate degree from the School of Education and Human Development, the following conditions must be met:

1. Students must earn a minimum of 120 credit hours, including transfer credits (with a maximum of two credits of physical education) with an average of at least C overall (2.0 GPA), and a minimum of a C average in the major program.

2. Students who matriculate at Binghamton University and who have not successfully completed 57+ credits are subject to the General Education requirements as outlined elsewhere in this Bulletin.

3. Students must complete the specified requirements in the major program in which they are candidates for the degree. 

4. Students must complete a minimum of 40 credit hours of upper-division (junior and senior) courses.

5. For each degree offered, students must earn a minimum number of credit hours in the liberal arts and sciences: for the BA, 90 credit hours, and for the BS, 60 credit hours.

6. At least eight courses (32 credit hours) must be satisfactorily completed in the Human Development division. To maintain the existing flexibility in student programming, these eight courses need not be the last eight courses toward the degree, nor do they need to be taken when the student has matriculated status.

7. No more than a total of eight credit hours in internships/independent study courses can be applied toward the 120 credit hours required for a degree.

8. Students must not be on probation or under disciplinary action, and must pay or make a satisfactory adjustment of all tuition, fees, or other bills incident to their attendance at Binghamton University.

9. Students must be recommended by the faculty of the School of Education and Human Development.

10. Finally, the State University Trustees by formal action must admit the students to the degree.

   The school reserves the right to make changes in the requirements listed above for graduation, except that no increase in total credit hours required for graduation shall retroactively affect any student already matriculated in the School of Education and Human Development when the change is made.

Major Course Requirements

1. HD 300. Social Science and Human Values

This course is designed to acquaint students with ways of knowing in the social sciences.

2. HD 400. Commitment and Social Responsibility

The capstone course in the human development (HD) degree programs, this course assesses social responsibility and commitment within the context of relevant social and professional issues.

3. Two upper-division courses (three or four credits each) in the following four curriculum areas:

a) Human Development: HD courses numbered 305-339

   This component brings a diversity of interdisciplinary perspectives to the study of how human beings interact with their social environment. Particular attention is drawn to the bio-cultural, psychological, political, and economic factors that shape human development. Issues of class, gender, race, and ethnicity are important foci for consideration throughout this inquiry.

b) Global Perspectives: HD courses numbered 340-379

   Courses in this area inform students' ability to understand the interrelatedness of people on a global basis and enable them to act and to advocate actions with informed understanding of global dynamics.

c) Issues: HD courses numbered 405-439

   Emphasis is on the critical examination of the intellectual, philosophical, technological, social, and historical developments that reflect upon the tasks and problems the student seeks to address. Understanding the evolution of current work and social situations helps to guide analysis and leads to greater appreciation of the traditions, cultures, constraints, and opportuni ties that shape human choice. Students may choose from course offerings in such areas of study as criminal justice, health and society, human services, leadership and organization, and peace and social justice.

d) Practice: HD courses numbered 440-479

   An interdisciplinary approach to learning integrates classroom learning with practical applications. Reflective practice is essential for grounding theory and ensuring its relevance to social responsiblility in particular. (Students should be aware that course work in this area is foundational and assumes that future develop ment may require graduate study and/or supervised work experience.)
 

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Graduate Programs

Master of Arts in Social Sciences

The MASS program emphasizes the interdisciplinary study of human development. Students design an individualized plan of study which may include an examination of the social, psychological, emotional, intellectual and biocultural aspects of human development, as well as exploration of effective professional practice (e.g., leadership, problem solving, decision making, group facilitation). Special attention is given to gender, class, race, ethnicity, and issues of social responsibility.

   The MASS program addresses the academic, professional, and practical needs of adult students who aspire to positions of responsibility and leadership in fields where the social sciences provide useful insights and back ground. It is useful for persons seeking professional development within a wide variety of institutions and organizations.

Admission

The procedures for applicants to the MASS program in the Division of Human Develop ment are outlined in the general section on Graduate Admission in this Bulletin.

The MASS program will review applications beginning April 1 for fall admission and November 1 for spring admission. If you wish to be considered for a graduate assistantship, your application must be received by February 15.

It is recommended that applicants to the MASS program include a personal interview with the MASS program coordinator as part of the application process. To schedule a preadmission interview, contact the MASS program coordinator, School of Education and Human Development, Binghamton University, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 139026000, 607-7776723.

Requirements

MASS candidates must complete, with no less than a B average, 36 semester hours of work within five years of being admitted to the program, to include:
 
 
Courses credits
MASS 500. Practitioner as Researcher 4
2 MASS courses 8
Additional graduate courses 20
MASS 575. Integrative Seminar 4
 

NOTE: No more than a total of eight credits of internship/independent study may be applied to the 36 credit hours.

Grading System

The grading system of the Graduate School is applicable to the master of arts in social sciences program.

Notation Of Incomplete

A notation of incomplete, rather than a grade, may be reported by the instructor when a student has made substantial progress, but has not been able to complete a course. In addition, the student must have a valid reason, because of illness or other justifiable circum stances, for requesting an incomplete. The questions of substantial progress, potential to pass the course, and a valid reason for the request will be decided by the instructor. When requesting an Incomplete, the student must:

1) Complete the "Contract for Fulfilling an Incomplete" form, which is signed by the student and the instructor.

2) Specify in the contract how the course will be completed, by what date the work will be completed, and specifically list all outstanding assignments (tests, papers, presentations) to be completed.

3) Submit the contract to the SEHD general academic advisor, who will ensure that the student is in compliance with Division of Human Development rules governing the number of incomplete credits a student may carry at one time. A student may not carry more than eight credits of incompletes at any time.

4) When necessary, include the signature of any additional instructor needed for successful completion of the course. This circumstance may occur when the original faculty member is on sabbatical or no longer teaching the course. A student must first obtain the secondary instructor's signature before having the original instructor sign the form.

   Graduate students who are given a mark of incomplete will have a maximum of six months to make up the incomplete if they register in the subsequent semester, and a maximum of one year if they do not register in the subsequent semester. It is the student's responsibility to ascertain that the coursework has been completed according to the contract and the new grade submitted. Any extension of the deadline must be approved by the vice provost for graduate studies and teaching on a "Request for Extension of Incomplete in Graduate Course." 
 

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Course Offerings/ Undergraduate

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all undergraduate courses carry 4 credits and are offered every year.

Note: The following course descriptions, while indicating the nature and scope of the SEHD undergraduate programs, are not a historical record. Most courses carry 4 semester hours of credit and meet one or two times per week. In the following lists, credit hours other than 4 are noted following the course title.

HD. 205 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
                                                                                           1 credit
Introductory course assuming no prior computer experience. Hands-on, workshop-oriented course with all sessions meeting in a computer lab. Introduction to IBM personal computers, DOS, Windows, word processing (WordPerfect 6.1), electronic mail, World Wide Web, and a spreadsheet program. Graded P/F only.

HD 210. INFORMATION RESOURCES
                                                                                          2 credits
Introduction to information sources and contemporary library research strategies. Students will learn to evaluate, interpret, and synthesize information. Development of search strategies to locate information using a variety of electronic databases and standard print sources. Graded P/F only.

HD 300. SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMAN VALUES
Ways of knowing and human values in the social sciences. Emphasis on the connections between contemporary moral concerns and matters of social policy. Emphasis on all stages of the writing process, including methods of argument and critical reading. Communication skills in problem solving and shared decision-making. Introduction to most commonly used research designs in social science. Use of these methodologies with interpretive, normative, and critical insight. Exploration of career opportunities in the interdisciplinary areas of human development. Open only to matriculated students in the Division of Human Development.

HD 305. CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Integrated study of the biocultural, emotional, intellectual, social and psychological themes and growth patterns of children. Emphasis is placed on their implications for childrearing, social practices, and political policies.

HD 306. ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT
Historical perspective of adolescence. Contexts of adolescents: society, family, peers, school. Critical social inquiry. Topics may include: physical, physiological, sexual, cognitive, personality, moral, and career development.

HD 307. ADULT DEVELOPMENT
Theories of adult development reviewed in light of varieties of evidence garnered from clinical reports, interviews, experiments, critical reflections, ethnographies. Special attention to concepts of gender, class, ethnicity, race, as well as age and stage in adult cognitive, emo tional, behavioral, social and civic development.

HD 308. GERONTOLOGY
Definition of aging, images of elderly. Life span perspectives, social milieu of aged. Multicultural exploration of aging. Institution of retirements; finances; social security or insecurity. Crime and drug abuse; mental health; death and dying.

HD 309. DEATH AND DYING
Definition, types, and meanings of death. Fear and anxiety, suicide, euthanasia. Life span perspective, grief and bereavement, spiritual perspectives, funeral rituals. Emergence of the U.S. as a world power in the 20th century. Topics include development of industry, urban environment, worlds of workers, the Depression, the Cold War, the counterculture. Variety of movies and novels. Not open to students who have taken HD 381.

HD 315. FAMILY SYSTEMS
Family as a system and impact on its members. Multiple factors affecting human growth, personality development, and behavior. Interactions between developing person, family, and social systems. Women's issues, homelessness, race, ethnicity, class and culture groups. Differences in values, lifestyles, and uses they generate for understanding the family as a system.

HD 316. THE AMERICAN FAMILY THROUGH FILM AND LITERATURE
Use of films, novels, and other media sources to explore family concepts. Examination of historical, social, and political changes in our understandings of families.

HD 320. GENDER AND SOCIAL CHANGE
Gender as a core organizing principle of social life. Examination of reciprocal construction of gender and social life in contemporary America. Topics will include growing up gendered; gendered sexuality; gendered talk; gendered violence. Fieldwork, class contributions, self-selected reading, required reading, topical writing. Student selected topics and activities.

HD 322. WOMEN AND WORK
Interdisciplinary course on the female labor force today. Changing conditions of women's work in service, production, clerical, craft, and professional employment. Mutual influences of social policy, family life, and economic institutions on women's work experience. Possible future for women workers; strategies for their realization in light of current theories.

HD 323. MEN AND MASCULINITY
An exploration of the changing definition of what it means to "be a man" in contemporary U.S. society. Patriarchy and conceptions of masculinity; shaping of male consciousness and behavior. Competition and achievement; aggression and power; control; commitment and intimacy. Topics include sports, war, media images of men, love, friendships and family relationships, work and success, sexuality, social change and men's roles, homophobia, masculinity and social class, cross-cultural perspectives.

HD 324. MOTHERING: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON CARING
Interdisciplinary exploration of women's and men's experiences with mothering activities (caring, or nurturing) in both the public and private spheres. Analysis of feminist theoretical approaches to mothering, personal perception of parenting, experiential accounts of caring, both in the home and workplace. Integration of diversity as well as commonality of mothering experiences of many in the U.S., including African-American, Mexican -American, and Asian-American women. Social policy implications for the caring professions.

HD 325. BLUE COLLAR AMERICA
Interdisciplinary course assesses realities of American blue collar life of yesterday and today. Experiences, feelings, opinions, and problems of working Americans, with minimum of political or intellectual preconceptions. Changing meaning of work in American life; labor and social reforms; changing occupational trends; workers in post-industrial society.

HD 326. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN AMERICA
Problems of poverty, race, crime, gender, delinquency, deviance in different stages of American history. Transformation of U.S. from agricultural to industrial and postindustrial societies and subsequent impact on social problems.

HD 327. AMERICAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Sociological analysis of American society. Structure and interrelations of major institutions. Recent social movements and social change. Comparative and historical analysis of urban industrial society.

HD 328. CLASS IN AMERICA
Exploration of the multiple meanings of class in America from a sociological and historical perspective. Theories of gender, race, ethnicity as observable aspects of modern American society. Focus on definition of most Americans as "middle class." Impact of contemporary changes in political economy on definitions of class.

HD 329. UTOPIAN EXPERIMENTS IN U.S. HISTORY
Examination of the recurrent pattern of utopian thinking in the history of the U.S. Examination of Puritan settlers and belief that they had a special mission to create a "city on a hill" to serve as a model for a world which, in their view, was succumbing to decay. Examination of several contemporary "experiments" that, with Puritan-like faith, have sought to create ideal communities.

HD 330. UNDERSTANDING BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Application of behavioral sciences to understanding individual, group, and intergroup behavior in organiza tions. Specific focus on optimizing individual effectiveness through principles of shared leadership; team learning approach. Topics include motivation, perception, communication, career/life balance, empowerment, ethics and social responsibility, organizational culture, valuing differences, group problem-solving and decision-making.

HD 335. URBAN GEOGRAPHY
Organization of space within urban areas; theoretical urban models and their application in solving selected urban problems.

HD 336. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY
Humankind's impact on the environment. Basic principles of physical geography and feedback systems as background for understanding interaction with environments.

HD 340. MULTICULTURALISM
Exploration of race and gender dynamics at the individual, group, and societal level which impede the development of inclusive organizations. Paradigms and constructs for analyzing the institutional, cultural, and individual implications of race and gender dynamics will be integrated with the use of experiential exercises to understand their impact on our daily lives.

HD 341. WOMEN IN ORGANIZATIONS
Experiences of women within organizations. Effectiveness in organizational settings. Understanding role of organization structure, culture, group dynamics, power and communication as they shape experiences of women in organizations. Gender socialization; ways women are perceived in organizations.

HD 342. WOMEN AND CULTURE
Concepts of women and gender; interplay of biology and culture in creation of gender identity. Historical and social processes that help shape ideas about women and their roles in society. Use of crosscultural explorations of women's ties to family, work, power, and other aspects of social life.

HD 343. WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
Introduction to world land use regions based on climatic framework. Each region analyzed in terms of physical environment and human occupancy patterns. Broad view of humanity in relations to ecological setting, global perspective on population growth, food resource supply, environmental determination, other world problems.

HD 344. GLOBAL ECONOMY: INTERNATIONAL ISSUES
Examination of principles of economics in the context of world economy, including functioning of the US economy as a member of the international community. Topics will include exchange rates, tariffs, quotas, balance of trade, European community, trade.

HD 345. TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE
Social, political, and economic problems generated by our modern scientific technology on a "global" scale. Special attention will be given to the dynamic nature of technology: the war system, the workplace, communications, human reproduction, the environment. Development of appropriate technology for a sustainable global civilization.

HD 346. CULTURE, SOCIETY AND PEOPLE
Origins of human culture; role of biology, environment, and culture in human behavior and human adaptations. Investigation of range of crosscultural variation in human societies, past and present, and why this range of variation exists. Broadening of understanding of what being human means. Social, economic, and political issues: sexism, racism, imperialism, economic development and underdevelopment. 

HD 347. RELIGION AND CULTURE
Influence of religion in the development of diverse American cultures. Interaction between present religious expression and issues of cultures in transition. Historical overview and examination of current development of mutlicultural religious expression and implications of this diversity for broader global issues.

HD 348. CULTURES AND CRISIS
Comparative study of movements of cultural reform; nativistic, revival, utopian movements, religious manifestations. Ghost dance of western Native Americans, peyote cult, oceanian cargo cults, peasant movements, western communitarian groups.

HD 349. WOMEN AND POLITICS
Changes in the role of women visà-vis politics. Historical, cultural, and societal circumstances which have influenced this changing role.

HD 350. PEACE AND WAR
Introduction to peace studies, a relatively new, transdisciplinary field that analyzes the causes of war, violence, and systemic oppression. Explores processes by which conflict and change can be managed so as to maximize justice while minimizing violence. Emphasis on the establishments of positive life-affirming and life-enhancing values and structures. Lecture/discussion format with invited guest speakers.

HD 352. HUMAN RIGHTS AND WORLD POLITICS
Focus upon the role that human rights plays in the world political arena; exploration of historical progression of importance of human rights, with special emphasis given to the U.S. and international organizations; three types of human rights, as well as ways in which states have attempted to incorporate promotion of human rights into their foreign policies. Course theme will be the debate over role that ethics and morality play in international politics, specifically the arguments of the Realist and Idealist schools.

HD 358. RACE AND ETHNICITY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Introduction to the study of ethnicity from a crosscultural perspective. Comparative perspective of case studies from both Western and non-Western societies. Topics dealing with everyday aspects of ethnicity (ethic images in advertising and the mass media in general; joking and ethnic stereotyping; ethnic socialization and education, etc.) Reflection of student experiences from a critical perspective.

HD 360. COMPARATIVE HEALTH SYSTEMS
Introductory overview and comparison of health care systems of various nations. Investigation of political, economic, socio-cultural and historical forces that have shaped the health cares systems. Understanding of strengths and weaknesses of these systems through global comparisons. Organization, delivery, financing of health care. Definition and evaluation of "successful" health care systems.

HD 361. ECOLOGY OF HEALTH AND DISEASE
Crosscultural study of human health and disease. Analysis of the relationship between the type of society a group builds and the health status of its members in a range of cultures including hunting and gathering, tribal, preindustrial, and industrial societies. Study of human adaptation, biocultural basis of human health and dis ease, ethnomedicine, rise biomedicine and current cri tiques, political economy of health, effects of industrial ization and economic development, patients and healer in the context of culture, crosscultural studies of stress and of AIDS.

HD 369. ETHICS AND FOREIGN POLICY
Examination of the morality of U.S. foreign policy. Topics include human rights, foreign aid, foreign investment, economic sanctions, military intervention, covert action, weapons proliferation, global environment, trade policy, drug policy, terrorism, and the United Nations.

HD 370. INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
Major problems and developments in international political system since end of World War II. Role of international organizations and alliance systems; revolution and intervention; world economic problems.

HD 371. RACE AND CULTURAL RELATIONS
Racial and cultural problems from sociological point of view. Understanding of different cultures and races, contributions to national culture.

HD 372. CONSERVATION/ECOLOGY/ DEVELOPMENT
Current world debate over the "rain forest" and what its conservation or destruction means to the North. Focus on ways various ideological perspectives and academic disciplines (such as anthropology, biology, and economics) have determined views of the rain forest and how this has affected the people who live in these regions we call the "rain forest." Attempt to demystify the common perceptions we have of the rain forest and address the underlying substantive issues regarding conservation, human rights, natural resource management, and devel opment using several key case studies.

HD 378. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO
                                                                                                       2 credits
Comparative ethnographic study of social structure and crucial issues in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Special emphasis on education and human services. Cross-cultural, historical and political interdisciplinary analysis of target cultures. Students will work in groups to explore local issues related to education and human services and develop a plan for examining these issues in Puerto Rico. Must be taken concurrently with HD 379. Permission of instructor required.

HD 379. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO
                                                                                                          2 credits
On-site study in Puerto Rico of issues explored in HD 378. Must be taken concurrently with HD 378. Permission of instructor required. Study abroad coordinated by the Office of International Programs. Travel costs in addition to course tuition.

HD 380 A-M. TOPICS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Special topics in human development curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HD 380 N-Z. TOPICS IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES
Special topics in global perspectives curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters. 

HD 382. APPLIED MICROECONOMIC THEORY
Determination of supply and demand; economics of consumer and business behavior. Labor market and organized labor; government and international economics; economics of alternative systems.

HD 395. INTERNSHIP
                                                                                                   1-4 credits
A learning experience integrating theory with practice in a health, human service, criminal justice, community, education, nonprofit, or business setting. Faculty sponsor required. Open only to matriculated students in the Division of Human Development.

HD 397. INDEPENDENT STUDY
                                                                                                  1-4 credits
Individual research of special topics not offered elsewhere in the curriculum. Demonstrated academic ability and approval of proposed subject are required. Open only to matriculated students in the Division of Human Development. By permission of instructor only.

HD 400. COMMITMENT AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Exploration of social responsibility and commitment with the context of relevant social and professional issues. Class selected topics will be researched, debated, and assessed so that students can clarify their views on socially responsible approaches to social, person, and professional dilemmas. As a capstone experience, students will define and complete an integrative paper or project based on 25-30 hours of service learning in the community during the semester. Open only to matriculated students in SEHD. Prerequisite: HD 300.

HD 405. ISSUES IN JUVENILE JUSTICE
Focus on juvenile delinquency and response of juvenile justice system to that problem. Actions of juvenile justice system, appropriateness in responding to children in trouble and in protecting the community.

HD 406. ISSUES IN CRIMINAL CORRECTIONS
Trends in contemporary American corrections. Changes currently taking place and possible future directions. Achievement of correctional effectiveness and effects of imprisonment.

HD 407. ECONOMICS OF GENDER
Analysis of the economic status of women. Topics include: family care; allocation of time between household and labor market activities; division of labor between husband and wife; breakup of sex role caste system; consequences of women's employment for the family; difference in occupations and earnings of men and women; discrimination; affirmative action; equal pay; poverty.

HD 408. ISSUES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT
Specific contemporary law enforcement problems as they relate to the administration of justice. Policing function in modern community, relationship of organizational structure in that function.

HD 409. CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY
Realistic perspectives of the crime problem and what government can do about it; exploration of current trends of crime and violence; examination of public impressions of factors shaping public opinion; analysis of current policy choices for reducing crime, including juvenile delinquency and public policy regarding young offenders.

HD 410. SUBSTANCE ABUSE POLICY
Comprehensive exploration of substance abuse policy in the U.S. Influence of social, cultural, historical, economic, and political factors that guide policy making and service delivery. Examination of current drug control debate from an interdisciplinary perspective, including legal and illegal drugs. Opportunity to assist in research project being conducted in 24 American cities.

HD 411. POLITICAL ECONOMICS OF U.S. HEALTH CARE
Examination of American health care system with focus on whether or not the present system of services meets the needs of diverse populations. Access to health care services and necessities of life that promote good health. Examination of social, economic, political, behavioral, and environmental factors outside health care system affecting the health of Americans.

HD 412 (also NURS 324). SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS OF HEALTH CARE
                                                                                                                           2 or 4 credits
Sociological, anthropological, and cultural views of health care. Belief systems as determined by religion, culture, society, and history. Influence of cultural views and belief systems on health and health care.

HD 413 (also NURS 332). HOLISTIC HEALTH PRACTICE
                                                                                                                          2 or 4 credits
Concepts of holistic health, holistic health nursing and practice. Focus on the investigations of nontraditional, alternative health practices. Topics include nutrition and vitamin therapy, therapeutic touch, relaxation techniques, massage, hypnosis, herbology, meditation, chiropractics and alternative birthing.

HD 414. FAMILY VIOLENCE
Comprehensive examination of the multidimensional issues and forms of violence in families. Influence of social, cultural, historical, economic, and political fac tors on individual and familial behavior. Implications for family well-being, social practices, public policy, and service delivery.

HD 415. ISSUES IN HUMAN SERVICES
Overview of contemporary human services. Emphasis variety of ways human needs are met by agencies. Dilemmas faced by human service workers.

HD 416. POLITICS OF EDUCATION
History of education in America. Equity in school financing; control of school districts; school desegregation policy; affirmative education; education as public wel fare.

HD 417. ISSUES IN EDUCATION
Relationship between public education and human services. Topics include education's role in the human condition, political and cultural structure of schooling, public schools as human service delivery systems, historical perspectives in current practices, human service professionals' interaction within the schools.

HD 418. SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY
Overview of social welfare policy, public and private. Definition of poverty: rational vs. political approach; historical perspective. Relationships between policy and reality. Child welfare; mental health; public health; elderly. War on poverty; war on welfare. 

HD 419. THEORIES OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
Examination of the classical view of crime as the natural consequence of unrestricted human tendencies to seek pleasure and pain. Analysis of extent that biological predisposition may contribute to criminal behavior. Cultural, social, economic factors relating to criminality.

HD 420. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: 1960S
Social, cultural, political movements of the 1960s. Civil rights, Vietnam war, women's movement, popular culture, religion, music, labor, art, consumerism.

HD 421. ETHICS AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Examination of ethical and value issues arising within bureaucratic structures (especially corporations) and between those institutions and their socio/political/physical environments. Fundamentals of ethical theory applied to range of problems emerging from relationships between business and society. Sources of and barriers to individual and organizational ethical conduct. Topics may include: hierarchy and authority; ethical decision-making; employee rights; discrimination and EEO/AA issues; workplace safety; quality of worklife; democratic society vs. economic democracy; advertising' military industrial complex; pollution; multinational corporations and global citizenship; apartheid. Case approach.

HD 422. LEADERSHIP: ISSUES AND STRATEGIES
Opportunities for developing leadership potential in or ganizations through application of various developmental needs, objectives and competencies. Competing issues, values, and strategies will be explored in terms of goal-setting, interpersonal communication, organizational participation, motivation, power, and the development and maintenance of organizational change.

HD 423. SOCIAL REFORM IN THE U.S.
Introduction to various grassroots social reforms championed throughout 19th and early 20th centuries in the U.S. Moral and labor reform movements. Comparison of reformers' changing values and reform methods; analysis of extent to which gender, race, and class informed these methods. Realization of ways these reforms led to creation of what Michael Katz called "the incomplete American welfare state."

HD 424. WOMEN AND THE LAW
Overview of the practical and theoretical issues concerning relationship between women and the law. Examination of whether our system of laws treats women in a gender specific way, and how this category of "gender" is affected by or influences those of race, class, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Examination of recent theories in feminist jurisprudence; analytical framework to examine range of legal issues; alternative means for "doing law." Focus on laws affecting women's political, economic, and personal choices.

HD 425. ISSUES IN AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
Topics, issues, problems facing U.S. foreign policymakers. Military, political, economic, and security interests of the U.S. with respect to East-West and North-South conflicts. Study of decision-making process and decision makers. Arms race, world trade, multinational corporations, resource scarcity, food and hunger, human rights, terrorism.

HD 426 (also NURS 368). NUTRITION THROUGH THE LIFESPAN
                                                                                                        Variable credits
Nutrition for the healthy and ill infant, child, and adult. Diet therapy for clients in relations to pathology of major body systems and psyche.

HD 430. MEDIA AND SOCIETY
How media affects obtaining information; shaping attitudes and behaviors toward gender roles, beauty, work, and success. Media analysis skills to explore those issues. Influence of politics, industry, economics, and technology on American media.

HD 431. IMAGES OF ORGANIZATION
Exploration of different ways of conceptualizing and approaching organizations: the organization as machine, as organism, as a brain, as culture, as political system, as a process of social domination, as "psychic prison." Each image draws attention to significant aspects of process of organizing, and provides a distinctive means of understanding and managing organizational situations.

HD 432. ECONOMIC ISSUES IN THE WORKPLACE
Basic foundations of the labor market. Topics will include: discrimination, unionization, inequality, labor supply. Focus will be more on intuition than on math ematical models. Theoretical presentation of a model; examination of a model in an applied sense. Examination of issues from different viewpoints.

HD 433. ECONOMICS OF POVERTY AND DISCRIMINATION
Examination of economic problems of poverty and racial discrimination. Analysis of public policies such as income maintenance programs, minimum wage legislation, affirmative action, education, and housing policies.

HD 434. SOCIOLOGY OF POVERTY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Forces shaping distribution of income, power, and prestige in industrial societies. Social bases and characteristics of socalled culture of poverty. Comparisons of capitalist and socialist countries.

HD 435. SOCIOLOGY OF WORK AND OCCUPATIONS
Emphasis on meaning of work in the U.S. Impact of cultural and technological change on occupations and the work force. Changes in blue collar and white collar work, changing patterns of work force participation by women and minorities.

HD 436. PEOPLE, SPACE, AND PROBLEMS
Problems confronting contemporary American regions and cities: geographic aspects of these problems; how these aspects influence social, economic, and political decisions. Changes in transportation technology, political organization, residential patterns, location of basic social and business activities and services.

HD 437. ECONOMICS OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Reasoning used in evaluation of new and existing urban programs designed to solve specific social problems and provide for particular human service needs. How benefits of new programs are weighed against costs in terms of budgets and community welfare. Planning for future; establishment of priorities. 

HD 438. CONTEMPORARY ECONOMICS
Goals of contemporary American economic policy; economic progress, economic stabilization, economic justice, economic freedom and their interrelationships. Specific problems on level of employment, inflation, deflation, economic growth.

HD 439. URBAN SOCIOLOGY
Historical sociology of urbanization. Growth and ecological patterning of urban area's metropolitan regions. Origins and causes of urban expansion and decline; patterns of residential segregation; formation of urban communities; processes of suburbanization and peri -urbanism. Geographical focus is primarily, but not exclusively, the United States.

HD 440 (also NURS 334). COMPUTER APPLICATIONS: HEALTH CARE
                                                                                                                          2 credits
Exploration of the common applications of computer technology and health care systems. Database and spread sheet functions. Computer technology as an essential tool for resource management in modern nursing and health care delivery systems. Appropriate for non-nursing students interested in health care systems application of computer technology. Not open to students who have taken HD 384.

HD 441. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COUNSELING
Overview of counseling theories. Detailed look at psychotherapy. Counseling techniques used in everyday situations. Cross cultural issues in counseling. This course does not offer professional training in counseling.

HD 442. GROUP COUNSELING
Group work examined as major approach/method/technique for addressing a number of human development and growth issues. Theoretical approaches to group work: psychoanalytic, Adlerian, existential, personcentered, Gestalt, transactional analysis, behavioral, rational emotive, and reality therapy. Development of eclectic model of group practice. Solidifying a personal leadership style for working with groups.

HD 443. ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE
History of alcohol and drugs, effect on body, denial of those who are affected. Effect on family, issues around treatment, criminal justice system. Cross-addiction, cross-tolerance, and relapse.

HD 444. ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE AGENCIES
Overview of responsibilities in administering the public agency. In-depth examination of the many aspects of public agency administration and leadership. Client-centered approach in fulfilling administrative duties. Development of own philosophy and style of administration and leadership.

HD 445. SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND THE FAMILY
As the impact of chemical use on family members becomes more apparent, the concept of co-dependency explaining family dysfunction becomes very useful. Understanding of co-dependency and substance abuse as a family disease. Awareness of skills necessary to assess, diagnose, and treat the condition.

HD 446. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Systematic approach to changing business, government, non-profit organizations of any size. Case studies and optional field work familiarize students with wide range of issues confronting change agents, whether as organizational members or outside consultants. Exploration of models and methods for promoting positive change. Topics include: change processes, action research, interviewing and interventions, resistance to planned change, groups and change, consulting, evaluating organizational change.

HD 447. CONFLICT RESOLUTION
Process of understanding conflicts arising within one's self, one's communities, and among nations and cultures. Theories, strategies, skills to be better prepared to address and resolve conflict and bring peace to all corners of one's life.

HD 448 (also NURS 330). POLITICAL ACTIVISM AND HEALTH
                                                                                                               2 credits
Development of skills needed by health care providers and/or consumers to navigate the legislative process in terms of health care delivery. Analysis of legislative process historically and in the present, and its impact on health care delivery systems and providers.

HD 449. HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS AND FUNCTIONS
Basic forces and services which comprise contemporary U.S. health care system. Topics include: hospitals, physicians, home health care, nursing homes, emergency medical systems, public health departments, durable medical equipment, hospice, mental health services, health care financing, insurance.

HD 450. PRACTICUM IN HUMAN SERVICES
Seminar for students completing internships in a variety of human service settings. Explores inter-relationship of theory to practice, including social, cultural, historical, economic, and political factors guiding human services practice. Students will be required to design their internships and define their objectives with a field supervisor, as well as with the instructor. Seminar meets every two weeks. Various student-recommended readings. Graded pass/fail only.

HD 451. GROUP DYNAMICS
Exploration and analysis of group and intergroup dynamics and impact on effectiveness of work groups. Cross gender and cross race dynamics will be emphasized. Through required writing assignments, participants are encouraged to integrate group development theory and personal experiences.

HD 452. PUBLIC POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION
Environment and techniques of public policy development. Role of the bureaucrat in the policy arena. Close examination of public administration; emphasis on administrator's role in policy development. 

HD 453. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT
Examination of factors promoting positive behavior, growth, and change in professional relationships: professional­client, supervisor­staff, colleague­colleague. Development of students' individual professional personas and styles.

HD 454. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Exploration of the leadership process through case examples. Examination of characteristics of successful and exemplary leaders in contemporary society. Early lives of leaders, their lifestyles and values, successes and failures.

HD 455. ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
Theory and practice of administration of justice; judiciary and its operations. Offender processing within criminal justice system from legal perspective. Procedure in comparison to realities of practices within system.

HD 456. COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE
Growing relationship and combination of services between orthodox medicine and alternative medicine. Mix of healing modalities and therapies, from ancient acu puncture and ayurveda to contemporary hightech practices of light/sound machines. Holistic design; treatment of person as a multi-dimensional being of body, mind, and spirit.

HD 457. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL PROGRAMS: METHODS AND POLITICS
Importance of technical and political issues in evaluating social programs. Value assumptions, political debates, questions of self-interest in all levels of analysis. Development of social programs out of certain social problem constructions (definitions); relationships to that identified as the cause of the problem; development of criteria used in evaluating programs; recommendations for change based on these evaluations.

HD 480A-M. TOPICS IN ISSUES
Special topics in Issues curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HD 480N-Z. TOPICS IN PRACTICE
Special topics in Practice curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HD 495. INTERNSHIP
                                                                             1-4 credits
A learning experience for advanced students integrating theory with practice. Open only to matriculated students in the Division of Human Development. By permission of the instructor only.

HD 497. ADVANCED INDEPENDENT STUDY
                                                                           1-4 credits
Individual research of special topics not offered else where in the curriculum. Demonstrated academic ability and approval of proposed subject are required. Open only to matriculated students in the Division of Human Development. By permission of the instructor only.
 

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Course Offerings/Graduate

MASS 500. PRACTITIONER AS RESEARCHER
Introduction to wide variety of approaches in social science research. Aims to prepare students to plan, implement, and utilize social science research in their lives as citizens, professional practitioners, and family members. Students will participate actively in course planning, with attention to research aims, design, data analysis and interpretation, and utilization. This course is recommended to be taken as student's first MASS course; it must be taken within first 12 credits in MASS. Open only to matriculated MASS students.

MASS 510. PERSONALITY THEORIES
Exploration of distinctive features of major personality theories and their implications for everyday living and professional practice. Perennial concerns of humankind, as portrayed by such thinkers as Freud, Jung, Adler, Fromm, Horney, Sullivan, Murray, Goldstein, Maslow, Rogers, Erickson, Lewin, Skinner and current feminist research. Emphasis on sharing ideas and themes that have a direct bearing on effective, significant living in the students' personal and professional worlds.

MASS 511. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COUNSELING
Overview of major counseling theories. Emphasis on how theories illuminate practice. Detailed look at psychotherapy and understanding ways relationship between client and therapist can be used to guide therapeutic interventions. Use of counseling techniques in every day situations; crisis intervention; cross­cultural issues.

MASS 512. GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL DYNAMICS
Examination of interaction between individuals and groups. Through participation in group and experiential activities, the class will explore individual and group behavior as a function of group processes and phases of development. Relevant theory from psychology, sociology, organizational behavior, and anthropology.

MASS 513. PSYCHE AND THERAPIES
Concepts of madness (or psychosis) and neurosis in contemporary thought and therapies. Role of labels in modern history. Idea of mental illness treatable on out ­patient basis. Development of Freudian thought, adaptations and developments of technique, reflection of recent views, certain forms of family therapy.

MASS 514. HELPING PROFESSIONS: COMPARATIVE AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
Overview and synthesis of psychotherapy, ministry, social work, education, and criminal justice as helping professions. Historical roots; ideological assumptions; role and function in selecting and treating clients; training programs and professional ethics. Gaps and deficiencies in theory and practice; societal reactions to the efficacy, or lack thereof, in the professions studied. Criticism and defense of professions; uncertainties and perplexities of each while searching for ways to advance knowledge, skill development and a renewed sense of passion for making our communities just, livable places. Discussion, debate and sociodrama to facilitate class activities.

MASS 515. PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER
Theoretical approaches to the psychology of gender. Among these approaches is the social construction of "difference" vs. essentialism and the notion of continuums.

MASS 516. COUNSELING AND CHANGE PROCESSES
Overview of counseling processes designed to improve professional communication skills. Focus on active listening, reflection, questioning techniques, cognitive reframes, functional analysis, etc. Change processes emphasized should be useful to counselors, casework ers, administrators, educators, Human Resource Management personnel, and others. Gender, social class, ethnic, and sexual diversity issues will be addressed.

MASS 517 (also EDUC 572). EXPANDING PERSPECTIVES ON CHILDREN
Professionals and those preparing to work with children in such areas as medicine, social work, psychology, and education share and expand theories-in-use that guide their practice with children. Formal and informal sources of current knowledge about children's growth and devel opment.

MASS 518 (also EDUC 504). MULTICULTURALISM AND THE PRACTICE OF SCHOOLING
Examination of diverse cultural backgrounds of students and teachers; ways in which these differences affect the practice of schooling, particularly in early childhood, elementary, and secondary educational settings. Nature of "education that is multicultural" and link to issues of school culture, educational policy, community relations, curriculum, classroom interactions, teaching styles, student learning, grouping practices, labelling, assessment, and the need to develop strategies for the improvement of educational practice. Dynamics of race, class, gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, and sexual orientation; affects on schooling.

MASS 519. EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC COUNSELING
Jungian analytical psychology provides framework to discuss existential relations to counseling and depth psychological interventions. Utilization of psycho-spiritual teachings and practices in myths/storytelling, active imagination, meditation, dream analysis, and development of personal rituals. Students select a therapeutic model for in-depth exploration and personal integration.

MASS 520 (also EDUC 530). ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION
Advanced study in the psychological, social, and education characteristics and needs of adolescents. Research and theory relative to cognitive development and functioning, self development, and peer and adult relationships of non-handicapped and handicapped youth will be emphasized. Field-work may be required.

MASS 521. ADULT DEVELOPMENT
Integrates theory with experiences, provides yardsticks for evaluating own development. Implications of lifecycle development for professional fields of counseling, education, human resource development, and management. Identity, intimacy, finding work, generativity, mid­life transitions, finding and becoming a mentor, life review. Debate between life stage theorists and those who con ceptualize development as independent of age and stage. Comparison of developmental issues of men and women.

MASS 522 (also EDUC 501). CRUCIAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION
Interdisciplinary framework for the study of contemporary educational problems. Analysis and criticism of current issues, uncovering historical, sociological, philosophical, and economic foundations. Special attention to cultural diversity, educational equity and institutionalized forms of oppression such as racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia.

MASS 523. FOLK/POPULAR EDUCATION
Different theories and practices of folk education. Comparison and connection of Antonio Gramsci's and Paulo Freire's work. Examination of relationship between folk education and radical social change. Focus on folk education movement in Latin America and in communities of color in the U.S.

MASS 524. CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Cognitive, psycho-social, and aesthetic development of children from birth to age 12. Impact of poverty, racism, gender, and social class on child growth and development. Roles of the teacher and the schools embedded in societal context. Course project will involve a child study based on direct interaction with a child and family.

MASS 525. COUPLES AND FAMILY THERAPY
Theoretical foundations, practice applications, and ethical issues of major schools of family therapy. Progression from first contact with family, assessments, intervention techniques, termination process. How issues of socio-economic class, race, gender, sexual orientation, and ethnicity are addressed within the family therapy context.

MASS 526. HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT I
Foundation of human behavior and the social environment as a basis for direct practice with individuals and families and for the management of social service pro grams. Individuals and families will be viewed as transacting with their environments throughout the life course. This perspective provides students with a framework for understanding the range of normal bio-psycho-social development.

MASS 527. HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT II
Continuation of Human Behavior in the Social Environment I. Focus on psycho-social dysfunction. Emphasis on multiple determinants of human behavior including biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors.

MASS 528. ADULT DISORDERS
Development of problems in adulthood using various theoretical models. Exploration of pathology through ego psychological, cognitive/behavioral, and environment theories. Attention to biological nature or basis of many adult disorders. Attention to cultural and gender bias in psychopathology.

MASS 529. TROUBLED FAMILIES/TROUBLED CHILDREN
Examination of family functioning characteristics including socialization practices, supervision, discipline, parent/child relations, family conflict, marital discord. Stress and disorganization, violence, parental mental health, and family isolation in relation to problem behavior among children and adolescents. Exploration of both risk and resiliency.

MASS 530. MOTHERING: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES
Interdisciplinary course exploring nurturing or caring aspects of women's experiences. Facts, theories, emotions, ideals as seen by selected scholars in history, psychology, sociology, political science, literature. Assumption that a feminist perspective is practical as well as theoretical, and that it illuminates possibilities for the future as well as criticizes limitations of the present.

MASS 531. WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE
Historical development, ethnic diversity, and current social relations that shape women's situations in their workplaces. Case studies of specific occupations and comparative analysis of the labor process. Current theories of the labor process and assessment of their explanatory power with relation to women workers.

MASS 532. UNDERSTANDING MEN AND MASCULINITY
Exploration of the changing definition of what it means to be a man in American society. Review of contemporary research about the social construction of masculinities and application to various facets of the male experience across the life cycle. Implications for masculinity on organizational decision making and problem solving, male-female relationships and men's friendships. Focus on men's roles (e.g., worker, athlete, husband, father, warrior), as well as dominant themes in men's lives (e.g., homophobia, competition and achievement, power and control, violence and aggression, commitment and car ing, self-reliance and independence).

MASS 534. COMPLEX UNITY
Seminar in political theory. Focus on notions of solidarity and coalition that are not dependent on agreement and sameness. Need for theorizing and constructing such solidarity will be explored. Investigation of political deployment of notions of nation, community, identity.

MASS 535. SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Examination of epidemiological information and etiological determinants of substance abuse, including physiological, psychological, and social factors. Examination of specific substances of abuse, including alcohol and other depressants, as well as stimulants, hallucinogens, nicotine, and caffeine. Evaluation and treatment issues. Attention to special populations affected by substance abuse and addiction.

MASS 540. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Exploration of the leadership process through case examples. Examination of characteristics of successful and exemplary leaders in contemporary society. Early lives of leaders, their lifestyles and values, successes and failures.

MASS 541. POWER AND INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Review and analysis of power and influence in organizations in contemporary society. Roles and interactions of individuals, small groups and organizational units in accomplishing the objectives of an organization. Organizations from private, public, and volunteer sectors will be used to compare the similarities and differences in managing power and influence. Current theories will be applied to actual practice in class discussion and individual student projects.

MASS 542. HUMANISM IN ORGANIZATIONS
Clarify views of humanism and ways an individual can expand an organization's capacity for humane valuing of people. Developing individual's own philosophy of humanism in organizations; building theory about humanity and inhumanity in organizations; defining an organizational problem and analyzing problem visàvis individual philosophy of humanism; strategizing about realistic ways to approach the problem within the organization.

MASS 543 (also EDUC 506). TEACHING, LEARNING, AND SCHOOLING
An introduction to the school as a social institution and to issues pertaining to teaching, leaning, and schooling. Exploration of the relationship between culture, teaching, and learning; constructivist model of learning, including its implications for teaching and schooling; structure and social purposes of schooling; how students and teachers experience schooling; ideas and issues related to school reform. Some field experience re quired in local elementary/secondary schools. This course does not meet any program requirements in the Division of Education, nor does it count for New York State teacher certification.

MASS 544 (also EDUC 541). APPLIED RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
Basic issues in educational research; development of critical skills as consumers of research. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies; experimental, quasi-experi mental, and single-subject research designs. Issues of validity, reliability, and sampling; descriptive and inferential statistics.

MASS 545 (also EDUC 516 and SPED 516). LEARNER-CENTERED, COMMUNITY-BASED INSTRUCTION
Examination of the theory and practice of creating learner-centered classrooms; building learning communities where students are actively involved in linking the curriculum to their lives and communities. Access to a classroom for implementation is required. Graded S/U only.

MASS 550. RACE AND ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
Historical and sociological analysis of racial and ethnic controversies in American history and society. Background on the historical development of relationships between dominant and minority groups in American society; examination of racial and ethnic issues in con temporary America.

MASS 551. THE AMERICAN DREAM: IMAGE/ILLUSION/REALITIES
Social, economic, political, psychological, literary, and popular cultural themes surrounding questions of the "American Dream"; its illusory qualities and its approximation to social reality. Values related to success, pleasure, morality, and care; rationality, individualism, community.

MASS 552. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Identification and analysis of current ethical issues confronting health care and human service systems. Selected issues will be discussed and debated in depth: inequality in access to services, rationing of health and human services, deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, abortion, the homeless, euthanasia, human and animal experimentation in medical research and ethical issues related to the AIDS epidemic.

MASS 553. COMMUNITY AND IDENTITY
Viable models toward formation of a resistant/decolonised subjectivity. Borders, exile, nomadism, margins, travelling, war of position, war of maneuver, community, home, nation, as examples of such models. Metaphorical or real places or locations from which to think about, fashion and refashion identities and struggles against oppression(s).

MASS 554. NARRATIVE STUDY OF LIVES
Interdisciplinary investigation through film, literature, and story telling of narrative concept and methodology in the study of women's and men's lives. Is the narrative study of lives just any story, or history? Does it have to conform to a certain structure or carry a message? How is it related to identity, culture, and language? Does it differ, in any systemic way, when constructed by differences in gender, race, class, or sexual preference? What is important and what is marginal about a life story? Exploration of the concepts of subjectivity and reflexivity in relationship to people's ways of knowing.

MASS 555. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO
                                                                                        2 credits
Comparative ethnographic study of social structure and crucial issues in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Special emphasis on education and human services. Cross-cultural, historical, and political interdisciplinary analysis of target cultures. Students will work in groups to explore local issues related to education and human services and develop a plan for examining these issues in Puerto Rico. Must be taken concurrently with MASS 556. Permission of instructor required.

MASS 556. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO
                                                                                        2 credits
On-site study in Puerto Rico of issues explored in MASS 555. Must be taken concurrently with MASS 555. Permission of instructor required. Study abroad coordinated by the Office of International Programs. Travel costs in addition to course tuition.

MASS 560 (also EDUC 560 and SPED 560). CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN EDUCATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SETTINGS
Conflict analysis, management, and resolution in educational and community settings with sensitivity to issues of race, class, and gender. Discipline of conflict resolution attempts to explain why conflicts occur, and compares and contrasts competing explanatory paradigms. Advocates and teaches certain practices which are non-violent, non-coercive, and effective in building solid and satisfactory personal and group relations. Reflection on root causes of conflict; enhancement of development of conflict resolution skills and practices for those involved in educational and community settings.

MASS 561. PEACE AND WAR
Cross-disciplinary introduction to the study of peace. Lecture and discussion format with faculty from various departments and schools; class discussion; analysis of lectures and required readings.

MASS 562. OVERVIEW OF CRISIS INTERVENTION
Transitional and developmental crises and range of crisis situations. Definition of crisis and impact of trauma on individual, family, group, community. Coping strategies for dealing with aftermath of crisis event and approaches to crisis intervention. Processes involved in helping people who have experienced trauma; trauma debriefing methods.

MASS 575. INTEGRATIVE SEMINAR
Students will define, research, refine, and successfully complete an integrative paper or project. Paper must involve an interdisciplinary social science topic or issue, be relevant to student's educational and professional goals and demonstrate competence in relevant theory and practice. This capstone course in the MASS program is to be taken during the student's last semester. Open only to matriculated MASS students. Prerequisites: MASS 500 and completion of 28 other credits.

MASS 580. SPECIAL TOPICS IN MASS
Special topics vary from semester to semester.

MASS 595. INTERNSHIP
                                                                                          1-4 credits
An applied learning experience for advanced students integrating theory with practice in a health, human service, criminal justice, community, education, non -profit or business setting. Faculty sponsor required. Open only to matriculated MASS students. Maximum number of credit hours for one internship is four hours.

MASS 597. INDEPENDENT STUDY
                                                                                         1-4 credits
Independent study can include research or projects in areas of special interest to MASS students which are not available as regular course offerings. Demonstrated academic competence in the subject area and permission of the instructor. Maximum number of credit hours for one independent study is four hours.
 
 

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