Human Development


The Division of Human Development provides multidisciplinary undergraduate and graduate programs that examine individual, social, and structural aspects of human development. The programs engage in a critical exploration of social, cultural, economic, historical, and political frameworks and the ways in which individuals, families, and communities are situated within them. The goal of the programs is to foster students' understanding of complex human conditions. The division values diversity and is committed to exploring issues of equity and social justice.

   The student population of the division is diverse in age, race, ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, and physical ability. The courses taught within the division stress collaborative education and the importance of inclusiveness for building trusting and supportive relationships. The curriculum is flexible and designed to encourage self-directed learning.

   Graduates are expected to be able to demonstrate the ability to (1) think critically, (2) analyze social issues, (3) express themselves well verbally and in writing, (4) apply knowledge by linking theory and practice, (5) understand and use technology, (6) develop an understanding of self and others, as situated in history and community, (7) develop an understanding of global-local issues and relations of power, (8) demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which oppression affects the process of development, (9) demonstrate knowledge, sensitivity, and skill in working with diverse populations, and (10) engage in a critical analysis of the concept of human service in the context of politics, history, and economics.

   Graduates of the programs in human development are employed in diverse and inclusive settings, including social services, schools, child care organizations, the criminal justice system, health care agencies, mental health programs, and community development organizations. Many students in the undergraduate human development program go on to graduate schools in such fields as social work, higher education administration, speech pathology, school counseling, education, criminal justice, and law.

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Admission

The procedure for candidates applying for admission to the School of Education and Human Development is essentially the same as for other students applying for admission to the University. Specific information can be found in the general section on admission in this Bulletin.
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Undergraduate Academic Policies

The school generally follows the academic policies announced in this Bulletin; however, students should be aware of the following policies pertinent to SEHD undergraduates only. Students are expected to be familiar with and to observe the regulations in this section.

   All matriculated students follow the requirements for graduation listed in the Bulletin current at the time they are admitted to the degree program. However, students who interrupt enrollments for more than two consecutive semesters are governed by the Bulletin in effect when they are readmitted.

   Upon the advisor's recommendation and an approved petition through the Academic Standards Committee, students may elect a later Bulletin under which they fulfill these degree requirements; however, they may not use a combination of requirements from different Bulletins. When courses required in older Bulletins are no longer offered, or in other special cases, course substitution may be made with the approval of the Academic Standards Committee.

Program Load and Planning
The term "full-time student" is applied to a person carrying 12 credits or more. The maximum number of credits a student may take, without the special approval of the advisor and division director, is 18.

   A student may drop below 12 credits without permission and be classified as a part-time student.

   Students are enrolled in a major when accepted into the school. In addition to their assigned faculty advisor, the SEHD academic advisor, peer advisors, and the Human Development Division director provide assistance in program planning for students.

Credit by Examination and Nontraditional Means
A maximum of 30 credits may be granted for credit by examination and for other educational experiences through military, industrial, or professional programs that have been assessed by appropriate organizations such as those contained in A Guide to Educational Programs in Noncollegiate Organizations and similar publications.

Grade Policies
Grading System

Students taking SEHD undergraduate courses are graded in one of two ways: 1) A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D, F; or 2) Pass/Fail. Under the normal grading system, students choose the first option. However, undergraduates in SEHD may elect the pass/fail option for a total of four courses while a student at Binghamton University and receive a P (pass) or F (fail) rather than a traditional grade. Courses taken for a P/F option may not be used to complete major requirements or General Education requirements. Mandatory pass/fail courses do not count as part of the four total courses. A course taken on the P/F option will be calculated into the student's grade point average only if the student receives an F.

    The grading option for a course may be changed (either from normal to P/F, or vice versa) at any time up to the last day for dropping courses, usually during the ninth week of the semester.

Repeating Courses
Students may retake courses in which they have received a passing grade by submitting a special petition to the faculty member teaching the course and the SEHD general academic advisor. This provision allows a student to demonstrate mastery of a given subject matter most notably (but not exclusively) in foundation courses, on which successful performance in later courses may depend.

   If approved, the repeated course does not count toward rate of progress. That is, when a student repeats a course previously passed, both grades will appear on the transcript, but only the first grade will be counted in the GPA calculations for rate-of-progress purposes.

    Students may retake courses in which they have received a failing grade; they are not required to do so by SEHD, although major requirements may dictate otherwise. When a student repeats a course previously failed, both grades appear on the transcript, and both will be counted in the GPA. Students are encouraged to speak with the SEHD general academic advisor as they make their decision about repeating any failed course.

Notation Of Incomplete
A notation of incomplete, rather than a grade, may be reported by the instructor when a student has made substantial progress, but has not been able to complete a course. In addition, the student must have a valid reason, because of illness or other justifiable circumstances, for requesting an incomplete. The questions of substantial progress, potential to pass the course, and a valid reason for the request will be decided by the instructor. When requesting an Incomplete, the student must:

  1. Complete the "Contract for Fulfilling an Incomplete" form, which is signed by the student and the instructor.
  2. Specify in the contract how the course will be completed, by what date the work will be completed, and specifically list all outstanding assignments (tests, papers, presentations) to be completed.
  3. Submit the contract to the SEHD general academic advisor, who will ensure that the student is in compliance with Division of Human Development rules governing the number of incomplete credits a student may carry at one time. A student may not carry more than eight credits of incompletes at any time.
  4. When necessary, include the signature of any additional instructor needed for successful completion of the course. This circumstance may occur when the original faculty member is on sabbatical or no longer teaching the course. A student must first obtain the secondary instructor's signature before having the original instructor sign the form.
    An incomplete will become an F at the end of the semester following that in which the incomplete was granted, unless a "Change of Grade" form is submitted by the instructor. It is the student's responsibility to ascertain that the coursework has been completed according to the contract, and the new grade is submitted by the instructor. An extension of the deadline must be approved by the division director on a "Request for Extension of Incomplete Grade in an Undergraduate Course" form, and will only be approved in highly unusual circumstances.

Withdrawal from a course
If a student withdraws from a course after the official deadline to drop a course, the instructor may assign a grade of WP (withdrawn passing) or WF (withdrawn failing). The grade of WP does not count as a course taken. A WF is equivalent to an F.

Grade Changes
No changes from one letter grade to another and no extensions of an Incomplete are permitted after 12 months from the date of the last day of class in the semester in which a course was offered. However, faculty are required to keep graded work not returned to students for only one semester following the end of the course.

Academic Standing
To remain in good academic standing, students enrolled in degree programs are expected to make satisfactory progress toward the degree. In SEHD, satisfactory progress is defined as maintaining a grade-point average (GPA) of 2.0 in all courses taken (both within and outside of SEHD). Failure to maintain the minimum grade-point average results in academic probation. Academic probation does not imply either suspension or dismissal and does not preclude students from registering or receiving financial aid. Standards for financial aid eligibility are described in the Financial Information section of this Bulletin.

The grade-point average is calculated on a 4.0 system using the following grade-point equivalents.
A = 4.0  C+ = 2.3 
A- = 3.7  C = 2.0 
B+ = 3.3 C- = 1.7
B = 3.0 D = 1.0
B- = 2.7  F = 0.0 
Full-time students normally complete a degree program in SEHD in approximately 10 semesters. Review of students' academic progress is made at the end of each semester excluding summer session. Students must have a 2.0 cumulative grade-point average (GPA) to graduate; those falling below a 2.0 will be placed on probation.

   Students considered to be making satisfactory progress if their cumulative GPA meets the criteria listed below. Those not meeting the criteria will be subject to suspension. Upon expiration of the suspension period, suspended students are automatically granted readmission upon application to the Undergraduate Admissions Office and are placed under an academic contract for that semester. Students who are readmitted after suspension and again fall below the stated criteria are subject to permanent dismissal from the school.

Exception for First-Semester Transfer Students
First-semester transfer students who have a cumulative GPA of 1.5 or more, but are under the minimum GPA listed below, will be placed on probation and deemed to be making satisfactory progress. Students transferring in more than 34 credits and attaining a Binghamton University GPA of less than 1.5 will be subject to suspension.

Hours Passed and Advanced Standing Required Cumulative GPA 
1-34* 1.440 
35-51  1.625 
52-68 1.715 
69-85 1.800 
86 -102 1.875 
103-119 1.950
120 + 2.000
*Exclusive of first-term freshmen with fewer than 18 hours passed including advanced standing, and part-time students with fewer than 12 hours attempted at Binghamton University.

Dean's List
To qualify for the SEHD dean's list at the end of the fall or spring semesters, students must have a 3.5 or better semester grade-point average and have no missing or incomplete grades. Recognition is given for each semester in which students meet these criteria. The award is noted on the transcript.

Graduation With Honors
Students with outstanding academic records receive honors upon graduation. To qualify, students must meet the cumulative grade-point averages specified below, have earned at least 32 SEHD credit hours, with a normal grading option, and have no missing grades or incompletes. Honors are awarded as follows:
a) 3.50--3.69 GPA: Cum laude
b) 3.70--3.84 GPA: Magna cum laude
c) 3.85--4.00 GPA: Summa cum laude
The appropriate graduation honors are indicated on the diploma and on the final transcript.

Withdrawal and Readmission
If students who withdraw from the School of Education and Human Development wish to remain in good standing, they must follow a formal withdrawal procedure. Mere absence from class does not constitute withdrawal. Withdrawal applications may be obtained from the Registrar's Office or Academic Advising Office either in person or through the mail. A grade of W is assigned when the student has withdrawn from all courses and thus from the University. Grades of W do not count as courses taken.

   SEHD applies the same withdrawal and readmission policies as established for the University, except that SEHD students may drop below a three-course program without permission.

   Undergraduate students must apply for readmission through the Undergraduate Admissions Office.

Grievance Procedure
See your faculty advisor, the SEHD academic advisor, or your division director if you have a concern which you have not been able to resolve regarding your academic program or particular courses/professors. You may request a copy of the SEHD Grievance Procedure from any of the above or the Dean's Office.

Financial Aid
School of Education and Human Development students are eligible to participate in the University's financial aid program. Aid is available to full-time and selected part-time matriculated students. Students interested in obtaining financial aid should contact the student financial aid and employment office as soon as possible to determine their eligibility.

Activities and Student Services
All SEHD students, matriculated or nonmatriculated, are eligible to receive the services provided for all students at Binghamton and to participate in the various student activities. Students should be familiar with the Bulletin sections that deal with services for students and student activities.

Awards and Prizes
See "Honors and Awards" in the Academic Policies section of this Bulletin.

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Undergraduate Major Programs

The Division of Human Development offers two undergraduate degrees: the bachelor of arts and the bachelor of science in human development. Both undergraduate degrees are designed to prepare students for careers in which they will work with people, in communities and organizations, addressing complex social problems such as poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, victimization, equity, and justice. Students design their own individualized plans of interdisciplinary study within the general framework of the program requirements based upon their specific personal, educational, and career goals. The two degrees differ only in the number of liberal arts credits required.

  The undergraduate curriculum is organized into four conceptual areas--developmental processes, social structures, service systems, and practice. Without presupposing that theory and practice are distinct, two areas emphasize theory and two emphasize practice. Theoretical courses explore ideologies that describe human development, situating individual and social group development within the political, economic, and social structures that shape it. These courses serve to provide the underpinning for exploration of work with people in the practice courses. While practice courses examine the philosophies, strategies, and techniques for working with individuals and organizations, they also emphasize sociostructural factors that influence practice.

Degree Requirements
To qualify for a baccalaureate degree from the School of Education and Human Development, students must meet the following conditions:

  1. Students must earn a minimum of 124 credit hours, including transfer credits (with a maximum of two credits of physical education) with an average of at least C overall (2.0 GPA), and a minimum of a C average in the major program.
  2. Students who matriculate at Binghamton University and who have not successfully completed 57 credits are subject to the General Education requirements as outlined elsewhere in this Bulletin.
  3. Students must complete the specified requirements in the major program in which they are candidates for the degree.
  4. Students must complete a minimum of 40 credit hours of upper-division (junior and senior) courses.
  5. For each degree offered, students must earn a minimum number of credit hours in the liberal arts and sciences: for the BA, 90 credit hours, and for the BS, 60 credit hours.
  6. At least eight courses (32 credit hours) must be satisfactorily completed in the Human Development division. To maintain the existing flexibility in student programming, these eight courses need not be the last eight courses toward the degree, nor do they need to be taken when the student has matriculated status.
  7. No more than a total of eight credit hours in internships/independent study courses can be applied toward the 120 credit hours required for a degree.
  8. Students must not be on probation or under disciplinary action, and must pay or make a satisfactory adjustment of all tuition, fees, or other bills incident to their attendance at Binghamton University.
  9. Students must be recommended by the faculty of the School of Education and Human Development.
  10. Finally, the State University Trustees by formal action must admit the students to the degree.
   The school reserves the right to make changes in the requirements listed above for graduation, except that no increase in total credit hours required for graduation shall retroactively affect any student already matriculated in the School of Education and Human Development when the change is made.

Major Course Requirements

  1. Students must take three lower-division social science courses: an introductory course in psychology, an introductory course in sociology, and at least one other lower-level social science course outside psychology or sociology.
  2. HDEV 200. Introduction to Interdisciplinary Study in Social Sciences
  3. HDEV 300. Social Science Research Methods
  4. Two upper-division courses (three or four credits each) in each of the four curriculum areas:
      a) Developmental Processes: HDEV courses numbered 305-339, 380A-M
      Courses are designed to provide students with knowledge of multidisciplinary theories of human development. Theories may reflect individual and social group processes of development, sociohistorical constructions of development, and/or cultural distinctions in the concept of development.
      b) Social Structures: HDEV courses numbered 340-379, 380N-Z
      Courses in this area examine various social, political, and economic frameworks within which individuals and social groups are situated. These may include particular institutions or contexts, such as schools, neighborhoods, or the workplace, as well as communities of color and class.
      c) Service Systems: HDEV courses numbered 405-439, 480A-M
      Courses explore program models and agencies that address human problems, barriers to service delivery, and the outcomes of interventions. Other courses examine the development of social policy to address complex human problems.
      d) Practice: HDEV courses numbered 440-474, 480N-Z
      Courses are designed to prepare students to work efficiently with people. They include program delivery models, counseling, group dynamics, organizational behavior, leadership and social change, and program evaluation.
  5. HDEV 475. Practicum in Human Development
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Graduate Programs

Master of Arts in Social Sciences
The MASS program emphasizes the interdisciplinary study of human development. Students design an individualized plan of study which may include an examination of the social, psychological, emotional, intellectual and biocultural aspects of human development, as well as exploration of effective professional practice (e.g., leadership, problem solving, decision making, group facilitation). Special attention is given to gender, class, race, ethnicity, and issues of social responsibility.

   The MASS program addresses the academic, professional, and practical needs of adult students who aspire to positions of responsibility and leadership in fields where the social sciences provide useful insights and background. It is useful for persons seeking professional development within a wide variety of institutions and organizations.

Admission
The procedures for applicants to the MASS program in the Division of Human Develop ment are outlined in the general section on Graduate Admission in this Bulletin.

The MASS program will review applications beginning April 1 for fall admission and November 1 for spring admission. If you wish to be considered for a graduate assistantship, your application must be received by February 15.

It is recommended that applicants to the MASS program include a personal interview with the MASS program coordinator as part of the application process. To schedule a preadmission interview, contact the MASS program coordinator, School of Education and Human Development, Binghamton University, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 139026000, 607-777-6723.

Requirements
MASS candidates must complete, with no less than a B average, 36 semester hours of work within five years of being admitted to the program, to include:
Courses credits
MASS 500. Practitioner as Researcher 4
2 MASS courses 8
Additional graduate courses 20
MASS 575. Integrative Seminar 4
NOTE: No more than a total of eight credits of internship/independent study may be applied to the 36 credit hours.

Grading System
The grading system of the Graduate School is applicable to the master of arts in social sciences program.

Notation Of Incomplete
A notation of incomplete, rather than a grade, may be reported by the instructor when a student has made substantial progress, but has not been able to complete a course. In addition, the student must have a valid reason, because of illness or other justifiable circumstances, for requesting an incomplete. The questions of substantial progress, potential to pass the course, and a valid reason for the request will be decided by the instructor. When requesting an Incomplete, the student must:

  1. Complete the "Contract for Fulfilling an Incomplete" form, which is signed by the student and the instructor.
  2. Specify in the contract how the course will be completed, by what date the work will be completed, and specifically list all outstanding assignments (tests, papers, presentations) to be completed.
  3. Submit the contract to the SEHD general academic advisor, who will ensure that the student is in compliance with Division of Human Development rules governing the number of incomplete credits a student may carry at one time. A student may not carry more than eight credits of incompletes at any time.
  4. When necessary, include the signature of any additional instructor needed for successful completion of the course. This circumstance may occur when the original faculty member is on sabbatical or no longer teaching the course. A student must first obtain the secondary instructor's signature before having the original instructor sign the form.
Graduate students who are given a mark of incomplete will have a maximum of six months to make up the incomplete if they register in the subsequent semester, and a maximum of one year if they do not register in the subsequent semester. It is the student's responsibility to ascertain that the coursework has been completed according to the contract and the new grade submitted. Any extension of the deadline must be approved by the vice provost for graduate studies and teaching on a "Request for Extension of Incomplete in Graduate Course."
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Master of Social Work and Master of Arts in Social Sciences

A Dual, Jointly Registered Degree Program
The School of Social Welfare in the Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy at the University of Albany and the School of Education and Human Development at Binghamton University offer a dual, jointly registered degree program culminating in the master of social work degree and the master of arts degree in social sciences.

The master of social work (MSW) degree, with a concentration in direct practice, prepares graduates for beginning-level professional social work with individuals, families, and small groups. The MSW degree program at the University at Albany is accredited by the Council on Social Work Education.

The master of arts degree in social sciences (MASS) is an interdisciplinary program offering a broad perspective in the social sciences. The MASS program strengthens the potential for responsibility and leadership in the adult student.

The MSW/MA dual degree offers students an opportunity to combine an MSW with a strong interdisciplinary social science focus. In social work, students complete generalist foundation courses, and advanced courses in direct practice that prepare them to work with individuals, families, and small groups. Concurrent with academic courses, they take field instruction in a social work agency under the supervision of a qualified social worker.

In social sciences, students complete required core courses, special courses for dual degree students, and social science electives. Approximately half the courses are taken in Albany and half in Binghamton.

For Albany courses, there may be the option of Saturday courses or interactive video courses beamed to Binghamton. Field instruction may be in the Southern Tier, if the student wishes. Travel to Albany will be required each semester, and additional travel may be required by the field instruction agency.

ADMISSION
Students applying for the joint-degree program with the University at Albany must submit special application materials. Applications for the joint program may be requested from the Graduate Admissions Office or the MSW/MASS program in the School of Education and Human Development at Binghamton University, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902-6000. Applicants can also check out the SEHD Web page at http://sehd.binghamton.edu.

The deadline for applications to the joint MSW/MASS program is February 15.

It is recommended that applicants to the joint MSW/MASS program include a personal interview with the program coordinator as part of the application process. To schedule a preadmission interview, contact the program coordinator, School of Education and Human Development, Binghamton University, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, New York 13902-6000, 607-777-6723.

REQUIREMENTS
The MSW/MA dual degree program is open to full-time students only. The completion of both degrees will take 73 credit hours. Completion of both degrees will take two years of full-time study, including two summers. Field instruction is taken concurrently with courses over four semesters, approximately 16 hours per week.

MSW/MASS candidates must complete, with no less than a B average, 73 semester hours of work, within five years of being admitted to the joint program, to include:
Courses credits
MASS 500. Practitioner as Researcher 4
MASS 526. Human Behavior and Social Environment I 4
MASS 527. Human Behavior and Social Environment II 4
MASS 575. Integrative Seminar 4
MASS elective courses 12
Albany course: Micro Practice 3
Albany course: Macro Practice 3
Albany course: Micro Practice II 3
Albany course: Macro Practice II 3
Albany course: Evaluation of Clinical Practice 3
Albany course: Social Welfare Policy and Service 3
Albany course: Advanced Behavior elective 3
Albany course: Advanced Practice elective 6
Albany course: Advanced Policy elective 3
Field instruction 15

GRADING SYSTEM
The grading system of the Graduate School at Binghamton University is applicable to Binghamton University courses. The grading system of the University at Albany is applicable to Albany courses.

NOTATION OF INCOMPLETE
The notations of incomplete, as explained above, pertain to the Binghamton University courses.

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Course Offerings/ Undergraduate

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all undergraduate courses carry 4 credits and are offered every year.

Note: The following course descriptions, while indicating the nature and scope of the SEHD undergraduate programs, are not a historical record. Most courses carry 4 semester hours of credit and meet one or two times per week. In the following lists, credit hours other than 4 are noted following the course title.

HDEV 101. EXPLORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE I     1 credit
Exploration of the theoretical perspectives of human development and professions that draw upon them. Introduction to the scholarship and practice of human development through a series of presentations and discussions by faculty concerning their research. Open to freshmen and sophomores in human development. Pass/Fail option only.

HDEV 102. EXPLORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE II     1 credit
Exploration of the theoretical perspectives of human development and professions that draw upon them. Introduction to the scholarship and practice of human development through a series of presentations and discussions by faculty concerning their research. Open to freshmen and sophomores in human development. Pass/Fail option only.

HDEV 200. INTRODUCTION TO INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY IN SOCIAL SCIENCES
Introduction to social science disciplines: anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. Grounding in the social sciences as distinct, yet interdependent, disciplines. Qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry; macro- and micro- levels of analysis. Examination of journals, books, and other relevant academic materials to familiarize students with current interdisciplinary scholarship. Interdisciplinary analysis of both content and methods of scholarship.

HDEV 300. SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMAN VALUES
Examination of two interrelated areas of academic inquiry: theory and research. Promotes acquisition and/or proficient use of analytical skills in critically examining sociohistorical information and politicoeconomic arguments from different methodological perspectives. Attention to quantitative and qualitative methods.

HDEV 306. ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT
Interdisciplinary overview of adolescence, including social, cultural, and historical contexts for development. Physical and cognitive changes within the individual, together with sociohistorical and cultural differences in our understanding of adolescence as a transitional period in life.

HDEV 308. GERONTOLOGY
Definition of aging, images of elderly. Life span perspectives, social milieu of aged. Multicultural exploration of aging. Institution of retirements; finances; social security or insecurity. Crime and drug abuse; mental health; death and dying.

HDEV 309. DEATH AND DYING
Definition, types, and meanings of death. Fear and anxiety, suicide, euthanasia. Life span perspective, grief and bereavement, spiritual perspectives, funeral rituals.

HDEV 314. SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS
Examination of sibling relationships across the life span and in context of society. Family systems theory and other frameworks to explain sibling interaction. Sibling rivalry, support systems, niche filling, abuse, incest. Birth order position, culture and gender influence on individual behavior, family roles, sociability, mate selection. Influence of ethnicity, social and economic resources, sexual orientation, gender and oppression.

HDEV 315. FAMILY SYSTEMS
Concept of the family unit as a social structure. Systems theory and family therapy literature are used to explain within-family interactions and impact of the family on its members. Family life cycle, multigenerational patterns, family work, communication, variations in family organizations, coupling, and marriage. Issues affecting family life, including family violence, substance abuse, mental illness. Sociological research and conceptual frameworks to understand family interaction within context of society. Oppression, ethnicity, social and economic resources, sexual orientation, and gender in terms of family life.

HDEV 318. IMAGES OF THE FAMILY
Representation of "family" as a normative concept in U.S. history. Exploration of how our understanding of concept of family has changed to accommodate dominant economic, social, political agendas. Topics include gendered expectations, pathologizing differences, family stereotypes. Use of films, novels, multicultural readings.

HDEV 319. HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS
Ways in which society defines and explains social dysfunction largely direct how attempts to address these problems are made. Examination of a number of human conditions associated with social dysfunction. Behavior explained from a variety of viewpoints. Open systems theory used as foundation for exploring seemingly contradictory ways of understanding human behavior with context of social problems such as poverty, mental illness, educational failure, oppression, violence, and substance abuse.

HDEV 321. LATINOS IN THE U.S.
Diverse experiences of U.S. Latinos. Questions of race, culture, class, gender from theoretical and sociohistorical perspectives. Issues of racism in education, employment, housing, health care; development of cultural hybridity and other forms of social resistance. Examination of overlapping relations of European Americans and distinct populations of Latin American and Caribbean descent within North America, but also between Native Americans and Mexican/Chicanos and African Americans and Hispanic-Caribbean peoples.

HDEV 322. RACIAL FORMATION
Examination of the difference that difference makes: the difference that other "ethnic" experiences, very different from the white/European one, have represented and continue to represent in the U.S. Historical analysis of "whiteness"; analysis of necessarily conflictive intersection of race, class, gender, and culture as complex socioeconomic structures, systems of meaning, and lived experiences.

HDEV 323. WOMEN, RACE, AND REPRESENTATION
Exploration of two overlapping questions: How women are individually and collectively situated and how they shift within existing social frameworks; and the ways in which these changing positions are represented within contemporary U.S. visual media. Cultural conflicts, patterns of groups and personal development, small- and large-scale political agency, social and textual contradictions, ideological symbols. Examination of ways in which representations of women have been understood in terms of race and in terms of how this racialization has intersected social class and sexuality within dominant U.S. cultures. Critical theorizations of how women change over time, in recent feminist film criticism, and in cultural theories by women and men of all races.

HDEV 324. MOTHERING: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES ON CARING
Interdisciplinary exploration of women's and men's experiences with mothering activities (caring, or nurturing) in both the public and private spheres. Analysis of feminist theoretical approaches to mothering, personal perception of parenting, experiential accounts of caring, both in the home and workplace. Integration of diversity as well as commonality of mothering experiences of many in the U.S., including African-American, Mexican -American, and Asian-American women. Social policy implications for the caring professions.

HDEV 326. THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Interdisciplinary study of development across individual, social, historical, and cultural contexts. Overview of field; linking theory, research, and practice. Multicultural, psychological, sociological theories; different methodological approaches to study of development; ways in which theory and method become translated into practice.

HDEV 327. SOCIOHISTORICAL MEANINGS OF CHILDHOOD
Social, historical, cultural factors that affect the ways in which people understand the concept of "childhood." What it means to be a child across time, economies, and cultures, rather than emphasis on biological or age determinants.

HDEV 328. ADULTHOOD
Adulthood from the perspective of stage theories and timing of events models. Adulthood as a stage of development, limitations of stage theories. Effect of socioeconomic and cultural factors, family status roles, employment status, gender, ethnicity/race, age on adult lives.

HDEV 333. SOCIAL CONTEXT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE U.S.
Sociohistorical analysis of interaction of black people and American environment, from slavery to migration to urban areas and subsequent isolation in the black ghetto.

HDEV 340. MULTICULTURALISM
Exploration of race and gender dynamics at the individual, group, and societal level which impede the development of inclusive organizations. Paradigms and constructs for analyzing the institutional, cultural, and individual implications of race and gender dynamics will be integrated with the use of experiential exercises to understand their impact on our daily lives.

HDEV 341. SOCIAL PROBLEMS
Survey of social problems. Topics may include poverty, race relations, violence, sexism, drug addiction, AIDS, urbanization. Emphasis on interdisciplinary understanding of relationships of concepts and theories to modern social problems on local, national, global levels. Use of interdisciplinary literature, fiction, film to provide more inclusive framework for understanding social problems. Students will be expected to spend time in the community researching a particular social problem.

HDEV 342. SOCIAL STRUCTURES
Sociological analysis of American society. Structure and interrelations of major institutions. Recent social movements and social change. Comparative and historical analysis of urban industrial society.

HDEV 343. ECONOMICS OF POVERTY AND DISCRIMINATION
Examination of economic problems of poverty and racial discrimination. Analysis of public policies such as income maintenance programs, minimum wage legislation, affirmative action, education, and housing policies.

HDEV 344. CULTURE AND CONTEXT IN DEVELOPMENT
Theories, themes, issues of ongoing interaction between people as they grow, change, develop over the life course, and the social context in which this occurs. Assumptions about human behavior that may interfere with recognition of diversity in ongoing interaction among individual, family, and group identity, social context and social life. Impact of culture and context on development, particularly as social inequalities, modes of domination, resistance. Roles of ethnicity/race, class, language, religion, and gender in development.

HDEV 345. PEACE AND WAR
Variety of approaches to the study of peace. Exploration of assumptions: that state of peace and justice among nations and people leaves much to be desired; that teaching needs to be more relevant to the search for peace and human well-being in a rapidly changing world; that only by feeling, thinking, and acting as planetary citizens in a globally interdependent world can we begin to understand how to approach a state of world order; that a paradigm shift from one centered on war to one centered on peace is imperative; that a paradigm for peace must embrace an understanding of personal change in human beings, as well as structural change in the public order.

HDEV 346. INSTITUTIONAL POLITICS
Critical interdisciplinary examination of dynamics and political nature of institutions and organizations; emphasis on power relationships within the organization and influences from outside the organization.

HDEV 347. DIVERSITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE
Issues of social identity, social and cultural diversity, societal manifestations of oppression. Sociological analyses of power and privilege within broad social contexts. Understanding familiar and troubling issues in American society in context of the larger society. Idea of diversity as inclusive. Topics range from religion and social class to racism and sexual orientation.

HDEV 348. POLITICS OF EDUCATION
History of education in America and basic characteristics of education policy and policy making. Understanding of contemporary issues in their formulation, implemention, and evaluation. Focus on how larger social issues are reflected in the life of schools and how they might be transformed.

HDEV 349. WOMEN, FEMINISM, AND POLITICS
Exploration of history of "women" in the U.S. since mid-19th century. Focus on individual and community experiences to assess dynamic variation in women's class, racial/ethnic and gender identity formation; differential treatment based on race, class, and gender at different levels of society; women's response to the structural arrangements that affect their lives.

HDEV 350. MEDIA AND SOCIETY
Impact of media on public opinion, public participation, societal attitudes and behaviors toward race, class, gender, human values. Use of media analysis theory and skills to explore influence of politics, industry, economics, and technology on American media.

HDEV 351. REGULATING THE POOR
Critical examination of dynamics of causes, consequences, and potential remedies of poverty in the U.S. History of public assistance and other poverty-related social programs. Implications for families in proposed changes to current welfare system. Analyses of power and implications of race and gender and socioeconomic status.

HDEV 352. GENDER, POWER, AND DIFFERENCE
Examination of how construct of difference raises important questions about problems faced by most women of color in general vis-a-vis historically existent feminism, both as a political movement and as an academic current. Multiple ways of theorizing women's rights and struggles; ideological differences among feminists and women's rights advocates. Focus on issues of race, gender, sexuality, and culture within context of reproduction, the family, reproductive rights, feminization of poverty, social services, academic disciplines, language, discourse.

HDEV 354. RECREATING A SENSE OF PLACE: COMMUNITY, COMMITMENT, AND CITIZENSHIP
Connections among class, race, gender, and place. Theoretical base in urban cultural geography. Use of case studies, narratives, film, fiction. Issues of power and access to jobs, education, housing, and connection to local, national, and world location.

HDEV 380A-M. TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES
Special topics in Developmental Processes curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HDEV 380N-Z. TOPICS IN SOCIAL STRUCTURES
Special topics in Social Structures curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HDEV 401. AGING, SOCIETY, AND SOCIAL POLICY
Aging as a social phenomenon. Biological, psychological, social factors in the aging process; demographic and ecological conditions of aging; problems of retirement; public policy and politics related to aging. Factors affecting aging: hereditary factors, physical and social environment, disease, nutrition, medical care, exercise, financial status, ethnicity/race, gender, stress.

HDEV 402. YOUTH AND SOCIAL POLICY
Critical examination of issues in social control and social policy in youth development. Role of gangs, drug cultures, family, media, community structures. Focus on youth-based organizations and alternative forms of policy formation through the lens of race, class, ethnicity, and gender identities.

HDEV 405. JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM
Philosophy, history, and development of juvenile justice system. Attention to services and treatment programs.

HDEV 406. ISSUES IN CRIMINAL CORRECTIONS
Development of corrections; impact of incarceration on the offender and society. Historical evolution of corrections; role of sentencing in correctional process; role of local, state, and federal agencies; community sanctions; prisoner rights; changing profile of offender population; treatment/rehabilitation in corrections.

HDEV 408. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WORK SERVICES Introduction to the social work profession. Specific focus on role(s) of social work within major areas in social welfare, including child welfare, crime and delinquency, mental health, health care, and aging.

HDEV 409. CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY
Perspectives of the crime problem and what government can do about it. Exploration of current trends of crime and violence. Examination of public opinions about crime and its control, including juvenile delinquency and public policy regarding juvenile offenders.

HDEV 410. SUBSTANCE ABUSE POLICY
Comprehensive exploration of substance abuse policy in the U.S. Influence of social, cultural, historical, economic, and political factors that guide policy making and service delivery. Examination of current drug control debate, including legal and illegal drugs, from an interdisciplinary perspective.

HDEV 411. THEORIES AND SKILLS OF HELPING PROFESSIONS
Theories and skills used in helping professions (counseling, social work, psychology). Emphasizes development of professional relationship, phases of the helping process, and problem-solving methods.

HDEV 415. ISSUES IN HUMAN SERVICES
Overview of contemporary human services. Emphasis on variety of ways human needs are met by agencies. Dilemmas faced by human service workers.

HDEV 418. SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY
Broad understanding of social policy in the U.S. Historical perspective to examine development of social policies on issues including poverty, mental health, employment, child welfare. Facilitate critical and creative think ing about philosophical, political, and practical bases of social policy.

HDEV 419. ISSUES IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE
Relationship of criminal justice to other aspects of American culture at different points in history. Emphasis on cultural values found in the criminal justice system, not on legal doctrine or institutions. Issues that challenge criminal justice system; moral values and decisions; worldview and cultural assumptions.

HDEV 420. COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH
Theoretical foundations, historical context, social value of community mental health. Exploration of importance of situating mental health services within community as a whole. Understanding of service as useful insofar as it is reflective of the community's self-defined needs.

HDEV 421. FUTURES AND THE HUMAN SERVICES
Examination of forces of change challenging human services in years ahead; necessary actions required to successfully guide human services through transitions anticipated ahead.

HDEV 440. PRINCIPLES OF CASEWORK
Introduces casework principles: interviewing, assessment and case theory, professional ethics and values; contracting, intervention, other related counseling topics used in service agencies, institutions, programs, and organizations.

HDEV 441. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COUNSELING
Overview of counseling theories. Detailed look at psychotherapy; counseling techniques used in everyday situations; cross-cultural issues in counseling. This course does not offer professional training in counseling.

HDEV 442. GROUP COUNSELING
Group work examined as major approach/method/technique for addressing a number of human development and growth issues. Theoretical approaches to group work: psychoanalytic, Adlerian, existential, person-centered, Gestalt, transactional analysis, behavioral, rational emotive, and reality therapy. Development of eclectic model of group practice. Solidifying a personal lead ship style for working with groups.

HDEV 443. COUPLES AND FAMILY THERAPY
Theoretical foundations, practice applications, ethical issues of couples and family therapy. Couples and family assessment and intervention process. Research on couples and family treatment. Ways of understanding family interaction and intervention are critiques and considered in regard to class, race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and ethnicity.

HDEV 444. ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC SERVICE AGENCIES
Overview of responsibilities in administering the public agency. In-depth examination of the many aspects of public agency administration and leadership. Client-centered approach in fulfilling administrative duties. Development of own philosophy and style of administration and leadership.

HDEV 445. COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT
Community development theory and practice; community development problems, history, actors. Models of intervention and range of such interventions, including housing development and community economic development. Issues of who defines community development agenda; relationship between physical and nonphysical development. Examination of selected recent trends and emerging policy issues.

HDEV 446. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Systematic approach to changing business, government, nonprofit organizations of any size. Case studies and optional fieldwork familiarize students with wide range of issues confronting change agents, whether as or al members or outside consultants. Exploration of models and methods for promoting positive change. Change processes; action research; interviewing and interventions; resistance to planned change, groups and change; consulting; evaluating organizational change.

HDEV 447. CONFLICT RESOLUTION
Conflict analysis, management, and resolution. Branch of social science committed to the search for and perfection of alternative dispute resolution methods. Explanation of why conflicts occur at every level, from the personal to the global. Compares and contrasts competing explanatory paradigms. Conflict resolution advocates and teaches certain practices that are nonviolent and noncoercive and are considered effective in building solid and satisfactory personal and group relationships. Reflection on the root causes of conflict (including issues of race, class, and gender); development of conflict resolution skills and practices.

HDEV 450. BUILDING A BRIDGE TO THE 21ST CENTURY
Work life challenges in the 21st century from diversity, environmental conditions, international conflicts, limited resources. Necessities of adaptation, skills in working with diverse groups, use of interdisciplinary knowledge. Opportunity to practice skills, including information technology. Community-based learning projects included in course.

HDEV 451. PROGRAM EVALUATION
Basic theory and components of program evaluation through case studies. Conceptualization and planning; interpreting and reporting results; evaluation of programs in education, human services, criminal justice. Emphasis on community needs assessment and impact evaluation.

HDEV 453. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT
Examination of factors promoting positive behavior, growth, and change in professional relationships: professional-client, supervisor-staff, colleague-colleague. Development of students' individual professional personas and styles.

HDEV 454. LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS
Examination of leadership theory and processes in organizations. Characteristics and types of effective leaders; motivation; role of followers; context; values and ethics. Leadership development.

HDEV 455. MEDIATION AND THE ADVERSARY PROCESS
Major examples of tension between conscience and law for individuals and groups; source of conscience; nature of law; personal strengths; social pressures. Intensive study of mediation as an emerging, successful methodology for conflict solving in America today. Comparative analysis of mediation with arbitration and therapy, as well as the adversary/judicial system of dispute resolution.

HDEV 475. PRACTICUM IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Interrelationship of theory and practice explored in class seminar and field placement. Social, cultural, historical, economic, and political factors guiding practice within field setting. Students must obtain approval of proposal for field experience from their faculty adviser in the semester before registering for the practicum. Prerequisites: HDEV 200 and HDEV 300.

HDEV 480A-M. TOPICS IN SERVICE SYSTEMS
Special topics in Service Systems curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

HDEV 480N-Z. TOPICS IN PRACTICE
Special topics in Practice curriculum area. Topics vary in different semesters.

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Course Offerings/Graduate

MASS 500. PRACTITIONER AS RESEARCHER
Introduction to wide variety of approaches in social science research. Aims to prepare students to plan, implement, and utilize social science research in their lives as citizens, professional practitioners, and family members. Students will participate actively in course planning, with attention to research aims, design, data analysis and interpretation, and utilization. This course is recommended to be taken as student's first MASS course; it must be taken within first 12 credits in MASS. Open only to matriculated MASS students.

MASS 510. PERSONALITY THEORIES
Exploration of distinctive features of major personality theories and their implications for everyday living and professional practice. Perennial concerns of humankind, as portrayed by such thinkers as Freud, Jung, Adler, Fromm, Horney, Sullivan, Murray, Goldstein, Maslow, Rogers, Erickson, Lewin, Skinner and current feminist research. Emphasis on sharing ideas and themes that have a direct bearing on effective, significant living in the students' personal and professional worlds.

MASS 511. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COUNSELING
Overview of major counseling theories. Emphasis on how theories illuminate practice. Detailed look at psychotherapy and understanding ways relationship between client and therapist can be used to guide therapeutic interventions. Use of counseling techniques in every day situations; crisis intervention; cross-cultural issues.

MASS 512. GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL DYNAMICS
Examination of interaction between individuals and groups. Through participation in group and experiential activities, the class will explore individual and group behavior as a function of group processes and phases of development. Relevant theory from psychology, sociology, organizational behavior, and anthropology.

MASS 513. PSYCHE AND THERAPIES
Concepts of madness (or psychosis) and neurosis in contemporary thought and therapies. Role of labels in modern history. Idea of mental illness treatable on out ­patient basis. Development of Freudian thought, adaptations and developments of technique, reflection of recent views, certain forms of family therapy.

MASS 514. HELPING PROFESSIONS: COMPARATIVE AND CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES
Overview and synthesis of psychotherapy, ministry, social work, education, and criminal justice as helping professions. Historical roots; ideological assumptions; role and function in selecting and treating clients; training programs and professional ethics. Gaps and deficiencies in theory and practice; societal reactions to the efficacy, or lack thereof, in the professions studied. Criticism and defense of professions; uncertainties and perplexities of each while searching for ways to advance knowledge, skill development and a renewed sense of passion for making our communities just, livable places. Discussion, debate and sociodrama to facilitate class activities.

MASS 515. PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER
Theoretical approaches to the psychology of gender. Among these approaches is the social construction of "difference" vs. essentialism and the notion of continuums.

MASS 516. COUNSELING AND CHANGE PROCESSES
Overview of counseling processes designed to improve professional communication skills. Focus on active listening, reflection, questioning techniques, cognitive reframes, functional analysis, etc. Change processes emphasized should be useful to counselors, casework ers, administrators, educators, Human Resource Management personnel, and others. Gender, social class, ethnic, and sexual diversity issues will be addressed.

MASS 517 (also EDUC 572). EXPANDING PERSPECTIVES ON CHILDREN
Professionals and those preparing to work with children in such areas as medicine, social work, psychology, and education share and expand theories-in-use that guide their practice with children. Formal and informal sources of current knowledge about children's growth and development.

MASS 518 (also EDUC 504). MULTICULTURALISM AND THE PRACTICE OF SCHOOLING
Examination of diverse cultural backgrounds of students and teachers; ways in which these differences affect the practice of schooling, particularly in early childhood, elementary, and secondary educational settings. Nature of "education that is multicultural" and link to issues of school culture, educational policy, community relations, curriculum, classroom interactions, teaching styles, student learning, grouping practices, labelling, assessment, and the need to develop strategies for the improvement of educational practice. Dynamics of race, class, gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, and sexual orientation; affects on schooling.

MASS 519. EXISTENTIAL-HUMANISTIC COUNSELING
Jungian analytical psychology provides framework to discuss existential relations to counseling and depth psychological interventions. Utilization of psycho-spiritual teachings and practices in myths/storytelling, active imagination, meditation, dream analysis, and development of personal rituals. Students select a therapeutic model for in-depth exploration and personal integration.

MASS 520 (also EDUC 530). ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION
Advanced study in the psychological, social, and education characteristics and needs of adolescents. Research and theory relative to cognitive development and functioning, self development, and peer and adult relationships of non-handicapped and handicapped youth will be emphasized. Field-work may be required.

MASS 521. ADULT DEVELOPMENT
Integrates theory with experiences, provides yardsticks for evaluating own development. Implications of lifecycle development for professional fields of counseling, education, human resource development, and management. Identity, intimacy, finding work, generativity, mid­life transitions, finding and becoming a mentor, life review. Debate between life stage theorists and those who con ceptualize development as independent of age and stage. Comparison of developmental issues of men and women.

MASS 522 (also EDUC 501). CRUCIAL ISSUES IN EDUCATION
Interdisciplinary framework for the study of contemporary educational problems. Analysis and criticism of current issues, uncovering historical, sociological, philosophical, and economic foundations. Special attention to cultural diversity, educational equity and institutionalized forms of oppression such as racism, sexism, classism, and homophobia.

MASS 523. FOLK/POPULAR EDUCATION
Different theories and practices of folk education. Comparison and connection of Antonio Gramsci's and Paulo Freire's work. Examination of relationship between folk education and radical social change. Focus on folk education movement in Latin America and in communities of color in the U.S.

MASS 524. CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Cognitive, psycho-social, and aesthetic development of children from birth to age 12. Impact of poverty, racism, gender, and social class on child growth and development. Roles of the teacher and the schools embedded in societal context. Course project will involve a child study based on direct interaction with a child and family.

MASS 525. COUPLES AND FAMILY THERAPY
Theoretical foundations, practice applications, and ethical issues of major schools of family therapy. Progression from first contact with family, assessments, intervention techniques, termination process. How issues of socio-economic class, race, gender, sexual orientation, and ethnicity are addressed within the family therapy context.

MASS 526. HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT I
Foundation of human behavior and the social environment as a basis for direct practice with individuals and families and for the management of social service pro grams. Individuals and families will be viewed as transacting with their environments throughout the life course. This perspective provides students with a framework for understanding the range of normal bio-psycho-social development.

MASS 527. HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT II
Continuation of Human Behavior in the Social Environment I. Focus on psycho-social dysfunction. Emphasis on multiple determinants of human behavior including biological, psychological, social, and environmental factors.

MASS 528. ADULT DISORDERS
Development of problems in adulthood using various theoretical models. Exploration of pathology through ego psychological, cognitive/behavioral, and environment theories. Attention to biological nature or basis of many adult disorders. Attention to cultural and gender bias in psychopathology.

MASS 529. TROUBLED FAMILIES/TROUBLED CHILDREN
Examination of family functioning characteristics including socialization practices, supervision, discipline, parent/child relations, family conflict, marital discord. Stress and disorganization, violence, parental mental health, and family isolation in relation to problem behavior among children and adolescents. Exploration of both risk and resiliency.

MASS 530. MOTHERING: FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES
Interdisciplinary course exploring nurturing or caring aspects of women's experiences. Facts, theories, emotions, ideals as seen by selected scholars in history, psychology, sociology, political science, literature. Assumption that a feminist perspective is practical as well as theoretical, and that it illuminates possibilities for the future as well as criticizes limitations of the present.

MASS 531. WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE
Historical development, ethnic diversity, and current social relations that shape women's situations in their workplaces. Case studies of specific occupations and comparative analysis of the labor process. Current theories of the labor process and assessment of their explanatory power with relation to women workers.

MASS 532. UNDERSTANDING MEN AND MASCULINITY
Exploration of the changing definition of what it means to be a man in American society. Review of contemporary research about the social construction of masculinities and application to various facets of the male experience across the life cycle. Implications for masculinity on organizational decision making and problem solving, male-female relationships and men's friendships. Focus on men's roles (e.g., worker, athlete, husband, father, warrior), as well as dominant themes in men's lives (e.g., homophobia, competition and achievement, power and control, violence and aggression, commitment and caring, self-reliance and independence).

MASS 534. COMPLEX UNITY
Seminar in political theory. Focus on notions of solidarity and coalition that are not dependent on agreement and sameness. Need for theorizing and constructing such solidarity will be explored. Investigation of political deployment of notions of nation, community, identity.

MASS 535. SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Examination of epidemiological information and etiological determinants of substance abuse, including physiological, psychological, and social factors. Examination of specific substances of abuse, including alcohol and other depressants, as well as stimulants, hallucinogens, nicotine, and caffeine. Evaluation and treatment issues. Attention to special populations affected by substance abuse and addiction.

MASS 540. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Exploration of the leadership process through case examples. Examination of characteristics of successful and exemplary leaders in contemporary society. Early lives of leaders, their lifestyles and values, successes and failures.

MASS 541. POWER AND INFLUENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS
Review and analysis of power and influence in organizations in contemporary society. Roles and interactions of individuals, small groups and organizational units in accomplishing the objectives of an organization. Organizations from private, public, and volunteer sectors will be used to compare the similarities and differences in managing power and influence. Current theories will be applied to actual practice in class discussion and individual student projects.

MASS 542. HUMANISM IN ORGANIZATIONS
Clarify views of humanism and ways an individual can expand an organization's capacity for humane valuing of people. Developing individual's own philosophy of humanism in organizations; building theory about humanity and inhumanity in organizations; defining an organizational problem and analyzing problem visàvis individual philosophy of humanism; strategizing about realistic ways to approach the problem within the organization.

MASS 543 (also EDUC 506). TEACHING, LEARNING, AND SCHOOLING
An introduction to the school as a social institution and to issues pertaining to teaching, leaning, and schooling. Exploration of the relationship between culture, teaching, and learning; constructivist model of learning, including its implications for teaching and schooling; structure and social purposes of schooling; how students and teachers experience schooling; ideas and issues related to school reform. Some field experience required in local elementary/secondary schools. This course does not meet any program requirements in the Division of Education, nor does it count for New York State teacher certification.

MASS 544 (also EDUC 541). APPLIED RESEARCH TECHNIQUES
Basic issues in educational research; development of critical skills as consumers of research. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies; experimental, quasi-experimental, and single-subject research designs. Issues of validity, reliability, and sampling; descriptive and inferential statistics.

MASS 545 (also EDUC 516 and SPED 516). LEARNER-CENTERED, COMMUNITY-BASED INSTRUCTION
Examination of the theory and practice of creating learner-centered classrooms; building learning communities where students are actively involved in linking the curriculum to their lives and communities. Access to a classroom for implementation is required. Graded S/U only.

MASS 550. RACE AND ETHNICITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY
Historical and sociological analysis of racial and ethnic controversies in American history and society. Background on the historical development of relationships between dominant and minority groups in American society; examination of racial and ethnic issues in con temporary America.

MASS 551. THE AMERICAN DREAM: IMAGE/ILLUSION/REALITIES
Social, economic, political, psychological, literary, and popular cultural themes surrounding questions of the "American Dream"; its illusory qualities and its approximation to social reality. Values related to success, pleasure, morality, and care; rationality, individualism, community.

MASS 552. ETHICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Identification and analysis of current ethical issues confronting health care and human service systems. Selected issues will be discussed and debated in depth: inequality in access to services, rationing of health and human services, deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill, abortion, the homeless, euthanasia, human and animal experimentation in medical research and ethical issues related to the AIDS epidemic.

MASS 553. COMMUNITY AND IDENTITY
Viable models toward formation of a resistant/decolonised subjectivity. Borders, exile, nomadism, margins, travelling, war of position, war of maneuver, community, home, nation, as examples of such models. Metaphorical or real places or locations from which to think about, fashion and refashion identities and struggles against oppression(s).

MASS 554. NARRATIVE STUDY OF LIVES
Interdisciplinary investigation through film, literature, and story telling of narrative concept and methodology in the study of women's and men's lives. Is the narrative study of lives just any story, or history? Does it have to conform to a certain structure or carry a message? How is it related to identity, culture, and language? Does it differ, in any systemic way, when constructed by differences in gender, race, class, or sexual preference? What is important and what is marginal about a life story? Exploration of the concepts of subjectivity and reflexivity in relationship to people's ways of knowing.

MASS 555. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO      2 credits
Comparative ethnographic study of social structure and crucial issues in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Special emphasis on education and human services. Cross-cultural, historical, and political interdisciplinary analysis of target cultures. Students will work in groups to explore local issues related to education and human services and develop a plan for examining these issues in Puerto Rico. Must be taken concurrently with MASS 556. Permission of instructor required.

MASS 556. CROSS-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES: PUERTO RICO      2 credits
On-site study in Puerto Rico of issues explored in MASS 555. Must be taken concurrently with MASS 555. Permission of instructor required. Study abroad coordinated by the Office of International Programs. Travel costs in addition to course tuition.

MASS 560 (also EDUC 560 and SPED 560). CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN EDUCATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SETTINGS
Conflict analysis, management, and resolution in educational and community settings with sensitivity to issues of race, class, and gender. Discipline of conflict resolution attempts to explain why conflicts occur, and compares and contrasts competing explanatory paradigms. Advocates and teaches certain practices which are non-violent, non-coercive, and effective in building solid and satisfactory personal and group relations. Reflection on root causes of conflict; enhancement of development of conflict resolution skills and practices for those involved in educational and community settings.

MASS 561. PEACE AND WAR
Cross-disciplinary introduction to the study of peace. Lecture and discussion format with faculty from various departments and schools; class discussion; analysis of lectures and required readings.

MASS 562. OVERVIEW OF CRISIS INTERVENTION
Transitional and developmental crises and range of crisis situations. Definition of crisis and impact of trauma on individual, family, group, community. Coping strategies for dealing with aftermath of crisis event and approaches to crisis intervention. Processes involved in helping people who have experienced trauma; trauma debriefing methods.

MASS 575. INTEGRATIVE SEMINAR
Students will define, research, refine, and successfully complete an integrative paper or project. Paper must involve an interdisciplinary social science topic or issue, be relevant to student's educational and professional goals and demonstrate competence in relevant theory and practice. This capstone course in the MASS program is to be taken during the student's last semester. Open only to matriculated MASS students. Prerequisites: MASS 500 and completion of 28 other credits.

MASS 580. SPECIAL TOPICS IN MASS
Special topics vary from semester to semester.

MASS 595. INTERNSHIP      1-4 credits
An applied learning experience for advanced students integrating theory with practice in a health, human service, criminal justice, community, education, non-profit or business setting. Faculty sponsor required. Open only to matriculated MASS students. Maximum number of credit hours for one internship is four hours.

MASS 597. INDEPENDENT STUDY      1-4 credits
Independent study can include research or projects in areas of special interest to MASS students which are not available as regular course offerings. Demonstrated academic competence in the subject area and permission of the instructor. Maximum number of credit hours for one independent study is four hours.

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