Sociology

Faculty

* Year of initial appointment at Binghamton

Arrighi, Giovanni, Professor and Co-Director of Graduate Studies, Dottore in Economia, 1960, Universita Bocconi-Milan: Urban-industrial, development, political economy, world-system. (1978)*

Casparis, John, Associate Professor, PhD, 1965, Brown University: Urban-industrial, demography, deviance. (1966)

Diaz-Cotto, Juanita, Assistant Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies, PhD, 1990, Columbia University: Women's studies, Latin American and Caribbean studies, social problems in U.S. (1990)

Dubofsky, Melvyn, Professor (joint with history), PhD, 1960, University of Rochester: Social and labor history. (1971)

Flint, John T., Professor, PhD, 1957, University of Wisconsin: Social theory, the arts, religion. (1966)

Geschwender, James A., Professor and Chair , PhD, 1962, Michigan State University: Urban-industrial, class analysis, race and ethnicity, gender and work. (1970)

Grosfoguel, Ramon, Assistant Professor, PhD, 1992, Temple University: International migration, world system analysis, race and ethnicity. (1994)

Keyder, Caglar, Professor, PhD, 1977, University of California at Berkeley: Development, political economy, Ottoman Empire, world-system. (1979)

Kraft, Philip N., Associate Professor and Co-Director of Graduate Studies , PhD, 1971, Washington University, St. Louis: Urban -industrial, labor process, occupations, gender and work. (1970)

Murray, Martin J., Professor, PhD, 1974, University of Texas at Austin: Urban-industrial, methods, South Africa and Vietnam, labor, class analysis, theories. (1975)

Petras, James F., Professor, PhD, 1967, Univer sity of California at Berkeley: Development, Latin America, the Caribbean, revolutionary movements, class analysis. (1972)

Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, A. Associate Professor , PhD, 1980, Union Graduate School: Cultural studies, post-coloniality, gender, critical race theories, historical political economy. (1984)

Selden, Mark, Professor, PhD, 1967, Yale University: Political economy, revolutionary change, East Asia, socialist development. (1979)

Tomich, Dale W., Associate Professor, PhD, 1976, University of Wisconsin: World-system, political economy, Caribbean, theories, social movements. (1976)

Trow, Donald, Professor Emeritus, PhD, 1955, University of Michigan: Social psychology, human services.

Wallerstein, Immanuel, Distinguished Professor and Director of the Fernand Braudel Center, PhD, 1959, Columbia University: World-system, Africa, development, socialist development. (1976)

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Undergraduate Programs

The sociology curriculum broadens and deepens the understanding of social organization and social change, and provides a background in the perspectives and methods useful in examining the factual basis of assertions about the social world. Sociology courses provide knowledge useful in making more encompassing and better integrated sense out of the social world around us and out of immediately experienced social relations. Such knowledge is applicable as background understanding in social action or in professions such as law, politics, social planning, and social serviceprofessions that must take into account social structure and social relations.

The curriculum emphasizes two broad areas: the development of world social relations and the development of the United States social relations. Both stress broad social change processes.

Sociology combines readily with racial, ethnic, area, and women's studies, as well as other interdisciplinary social sciences.

Course Prerequisites

There are no prerequisites to courses numbered 200 and above, except that permission of the instructor is required for courses numbered 395, 491, 498, and 499.

Sociology Major

The department requires 10 sociology courses for the major, including:

  1. One introductory-level course (SOC 111 to SOC 116). Sociology majors may take more than one introductory-level course for credit; however, only one will count toward fulfilling the requirements for the major.
  2. One course in sociological methods, SOC 304, 305, 306, 363, or other courses which may be offered by the department or the University and designated as fulfilling the requirement.
  3. Eight other sociology courses, of which a minimum of six must be numbered 300 or above. Graduate courses may be taken (with permission of instructor) and count toward 300-level (and above) requirements. [Methods courses are included as part of the six 300-level requirements.]
  4. A maximum of one course selected from SOC 395, 397, and 498 may be counted toward the major as part of the 10 sociology courses. Only one sociology course counting for the major (or minor) may be taken pass/fail.
  5. Honors program: see SOC 499.
Students are encouraged to consult with an advisor about courses outside the department that may be substituted for the above requirements.

Honors Program

To earn honors in sociology, a student majoring in sociology must earn a grade point average of 3.5 or above in major courses and 3.3 or above overall and must successfully complete the Honors Seminar (SOC 499), that is, submit a research paper that is judged to be of honors quality. SOC 499 (or its functional equivalent) constitutes an "11th course," that is, a course in addition to the 10-course requirement to fulfill the sociology major.

    Research for the honors paper may be initiated in SOC 499 (offered each fall semester) or in another sociology course. This Honors Senior Seminar (open to all students with permission of instructor) will be organized around broad topics of general sociological interest.

    To earn high honors, a sociology major must earn a GPA of 3.7 or above in the major and a 3.5 overall and meet the other conditions described above for honors.

    Consult the director of undergraduate studies for more information.

Sociology Minor

Six courses (24 credits) are required: one sociology methods course (SOC 304, 305, 306, or 363); three sociology courses numbered 300 or above; and two other sociology courses.

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Graduate Programs

The graduate program in sociology is made up of two concentrations, each with its own intellectual focus, admissions standards, and program of tudies. Information about both concentrations may be obtained from the graduate secretary in the Department of Sociology.

Concentration in World Historical Social Change
The concentration in world historical social change focuses on the study of long term, large scale historical change and offers promising young scholars studying for the PhD the opportunity to develop the intellectual breadth and analytical skills needed to further the disciplined study of past and ongoing processes of social change. It operates through flexible working relationships between and among students and faculty rather than through fixed and uniform procedures. Students are expected to organize in consultation with faculty their own individual programs of study and research, and their own conceptions of the scholarly areas in which they demonstrate their competence. Well-prepared students spending full time on their graduate studies and research (including summers) should be able to complete the doctoral program in five yearsthree to four years if entering with advanced standing.

Admission
An applicant should ordinarily have a superior academic record, a scholarly interest in working toward the PhD, germane training in languages and/or mathematics (or logic or statistics), and/or a strong background in the social sciences (history, anthropology, sociology, economics, etc.).

   We consider the ability to write well important and specifically request all applicants to submit, 1) papers they consider indicative of their scholarly promise and; 2) a carefully framed, full statement on their general scholarly concerns, the particular problems of inquiry that interest them, why they wish to pursue their doctoral studies at Binghamton, their study plans if admitted, and their general career plans.

   The Graduate School requires all applicants to submit their scores in the Graduate Record Examination's three general tests (verbal, quantitative, and analytical). No advanced test score is necessary.

   In deciding on admission, and on funding, the Department of Sociology pays primary attention to an applicant's scholarly promise, as indicated by submitted written work, statement of scholarly concerns and plans, and past academic record as reflected in transcripts and letters of recommendation. No one of these is more important than any other, and a weak showing on one is usually discounted if the others indicate strong scholarly promise.

   Admission is normally to the program of first-year studies, with admission to the program of advanced studies contingent on performance in the first-year program. Admission to doctoral research requires the demonstration of substantial scholarly competence in the course of completing at least 36 credit hours (two years) of advanced study (24 credit hours for students with a departmental master's degree).

Program Emphases And Stages
The concentration offers course work, supervised independent study, and research guidance at the level of first-year studies, advanced studies, and doctoral research. Instruction is given in world-system studies and development studies, as well as in theories and methods and in selected special subjects. Individual programs of study generally include introduc tory and advanced seminars offered by the concentration, course work in other depart ments or schools, and independent study. All students are required to take two of the four core courses offered by the concentration in American and comparative studies.

FIRST-YEAR STUDIES
Each student's program is worked out in consultation with one or more faculty advisors in the light of the student's preparation and interests. Ordinarily a first-year program includes the introductory courses in the modern world-system, development studies, theoretical studies, and aspects of method in world-historical inquiry. Students whose preparation or particular interests warrant a different program of course work, one including advanced colloquia, independent study, and/or courses in other departments or schools, may usually arrange it in consultation with faculty advisors.

ADVANCED STUDIES
In advanced studies, students concentrate their work in two or more fields of historical social science, with a view to demonstrating a high level of competence in each, and in developing a dissertation-research project on a subject of substantial interest. Each student's actual program of studies is jointly worked out by the student and a study committee chosen by the student. The program usually combines colloquia, independent reading, the continuing doctoral-research seminar, and supervised participation in research and in teaching. Advanced students usually have opportunities to take part in research in the Fernand Braudel Center for the Study of Economies, Historical Systems, and Civilizations (Immanuel Wallerstein, director).

   The range of admissible areas of inquiry for the purpose of demonstrating competence is in principle fairly broad; the scope and content of the areas, so far as demonstrations of competence are concerned, are jointly defined in each case by the student and the faculty members of the study committee.

   At the start of work in advanced studies, a student's study committee may have as few as one faculty member, with others being added as the student's work progresses and interests and abilities become clearer. When fully consti tuted, however, it should have no less than four members, at least two of whom should be members of the concentration in world istorical social change. A study committee's role combines guiding the student in advanced studies, evaluating the work as it progresses, and assessing when a requisite level of competence in each field has been demon strated. Each member of a student's study committee should thus have special competence in at least one of the student's fields.

Master Of Arts Degree
Degree requirements include 32 graduate credits in sociology or in approved courses in other departments or schools of the University.

Doctor Of Philosophy Degree

Course Requirements
Thirty-six graduate credits beyond the MA or its equivalent (24 for those students with departmentally earned master's degrees) in sociology or in approved courses of instruction in other departments or schools of the University.

Comprehensive Examination
The comprehensive examination in the concentration consists of the completion of demonstration of competence in two fields at the doctoral level. Doctoral-level competence in an area consists of a broad working familiarity with the principal perspectives, theories, research practices, and matters of generally established fact commonly encountered in the area (as that has been defined ahead of time for this purpose, jointly by the student and the study committee); plus a mastery of the issues and problems associated with jointly agreed-on selected topics within the area. Competence may be demonstrated through an examination given by the student's study committee, or through papers submitted to the committee in accordance with prior arrangements, or through some jointly agreed-on combination of these.

    A student may complete a demonstration of competence in an area at any time after admission to the advanced studies program. Demonstration of competence in the two areas should normally be completed, and the comprehensive examination thus passed, by the end of the third year of residence.

Admission to Candidacy
On passing this comprehensive examination, the student is admitted to the doctoral-research level and at this time formally becomes a candidate for the PhD from the University.

   On completing the demonstrations of competence in fields, the student chooses a dissertation committee, which by Graduate School regulations must have three or more members and whose chair or one co-chair (chosen by the student) should be a member of the department's concentration in world historical social change.

   Within six months of the student's admission to candidacy, the director of graduate study should receive a copy of the student's dissertation-research proposal approved by the members of the dissertation committee. The filing of the proposal confirms candidacy, and failure to file a proposal in the allotted time jeopardizes the status.

Granting the Degree
The department acting through the co-director of graduate studies for the world-historical social change concentration recommends that the University grant the PhD in sociology to a candidate for the degree when the student has fulfilled the University residence and doctoral-research requirements; passed an oral examination ("the defense") administered by the University on the topic of the dissertation; and deposited with the University a copy of the (revised) dissertation approved by a majority of the examining committee.

Concentration Faculty
Concentration Faculty, 1997-98

Giovanni Arrighi, Professor, Dottore in Economia, Bocconi (Milan), Co-Director of Graduate Studies for the Concentration in World Historical Social Change

Diaz-Cotto, Juanita, Assistant Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies, PhD, Political Science, Columbia

Dubofsky, Melvyn, Professor (joint with history), PhD, History, Rochester

Flint, John, Professor, PhD, Sociology, Wiscon sin

Grosfoguel, Ramon, Assistant Professor, PhD, Sociology, Temple

Keyder, Caglar, Professor, PhD, Economics, California (Berkeley)

King, Anthony, Professor (joint with art history), PhD, Social Sciences, Brunel (London)

Santiago, Kelvin, Associate Professor, PhD, Sociology, Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities (Cincinnati)

Selden, Mark, Professor, PhD, History, Yale

Tomich, Dale, Associate Professor, PhD, History, Wisconsin

Wallerstein, Immanuel, Distinguished Professor, PhD, Sociology, Columbia

Concentration in American and Comparative Studies
The concentration in American and comparative studies provides the theoretical background and analytical skills required to study social relations defined chiefly by race, class, gender, and work. The concentration's full-time and associated faculty are not committed to a single approach or methodology; substantively, they have a wide range of research interests. These include the historical construction of race and gender relations in North America; emigration, migration, and the international movement of labor and capital; imperialism and development, colonialism, decolonization, state, and class; politics of southern Africa and Latin America; technology and comparative industrial relations; theories of state and contemporary politics; education, environment, and political economy; and comparative and historical methods.

   Students are encouraged to explore and develop their own intellectual pursuits within this broad framework. Students are also encouraged to formulate their own conceptions of scholarly areas in which they will demonstrate their competence. Generally, students entering the program with a bachelor's degree should be able to finish required course work within three years and complete the doctoral program within six years.

   The concentration maintains a strong relationship with the Institute for Research on Multiculturalism and International Labor. Department graduate students have fashioned dissertation projects based on the institute's ongoing work and others have been actively engaged in research funded by the institute.

Admission and Funding

Admission to the Concentration
An applicant should ordinarily have an outstanding academic record of achievement, and a solid background in the social sciences. The ability to write cogently is important; all applicants are asked to submit copies of written work, such as course papers, articles, reviews, and research proposals. In addition, all applicants are asked to submit a carefully framed statement of intellectual purpose, including why they wish to pursue their doctoral studies in the concentration in American and comparative studies at Binghamton University.

   The Graduate School requires all applicants to submit their scores in the Graduate Record Examination's verbal, quantitative, and analytical tests. No advanced tests are required.

Funding
A small number of department assistantships and fellowships is available each year to entering students. Awards are highly competitive. In arriving at a decision on admission and funding, the department pays primary attention to an applicant's academic record as reflected in transcripts and in at least three letters of recommendation, as well as the candidate's statement of purpose. Normally, a student in good standing remains eligible for funding for four years. In some cases, eligibility may be extended to five years. Department students have been extremely successful obtaining university-wide fellowships and internships, including Clark Fellowships for under represented minority students.

   Additional funding opportunities are available through adjunct teaching positions in the Sociology Department. These are available to students who have been admitted to PhD candidacy.

Admission to PhD candidacy
Admission to PhD candidacy is contingent on satisfactory performance in the first-year program, a demonstration of substantial scholarly competence in two fields of theoretical and substantive inquiry, the completion of required course work and acceptance of a dissertation prospectus.

Program of Study in the Concentration
The concentration's faculty offer coursework, supervised independent study and research guidance at all levels of study. The concentration's four core courses are offered annually; advanced courses are offered biannually. Students are required to successfully complete the concentration's four core courses, three others offered by the concentration's full-time and associated faculty and two of the four core courses offered by the concentration in world historical social change.

   The selection of courses, particularly for first-year students, should be carefully discussed with the student's graduate advisor. After the first year, courses will necessarily reflect the student's own intellectual and research interests and collaborative work. Course requirements may be altered on a case by case basis in consultation with the concentration's co-director of graduate studies.

First-Year Studies
Ordinarily, a first-year program consists of four introductory-level core courses in the concentration in addition to two other courses selected from the department or elsewhere. The four core courses are SOC 602 (Race, Class, and Gender); SOC 603 (Economic Studies in Social Change, and Class Formation in the Periphery); SOC 606 (Urban-Industrial Studies); and SOC 608 (Studies in Expansion Methods).

Advanced Studies
By the end of the second year, students will normally form study committees. Initially, the study committee may have one or two members but will eventually consist of four faculty members, three of whom, including the chairperson, must come from the ACS concen tration. The committee will help the student develop a program of study and eventually a schedule for demonstrating competency and in the development, preparation, and defense of a doctoral dissertation.

Demonstration of Competency and Admission to Ph.D. Candidacy
Before admission to PhD candidacy, students must demonstrate competency in two of the areas of specialization offered by concentration faculty. For those students who enter with a BA, it is expected that students will demonstrate competency by the end of the third year.

   Demonstrations of competency will involve either 1) examinations prepared by the student's study committee in consultation with the student; or 2) specialized area papers.

Comprehensive Examinations
The comprehensive, or PhD qualifying, examination consists of a demonstration of competency in two fields of inquiry at the doctoral level. Competence in an area consists of a broad familiarity with most of the principal perspectives, theories, research issues, and practices commonly encountered in a well-defined or emerging field of inquiry. Each field shall be defined prior to the examination jointly by the student and the study committee. The format of the examination will be determined by the study committee in consultation with the student.

   For those students entering the program with a bachelor's degree, it is expected that they will take their qualifying examinations by the end of the third year.

   After successfully demonstrating competency, students will form their PhD dissertation committee. University regulations require that the committee consist of at least four persons. The chairperson and at least one other member must be members of the concentration faculty. University regulations require that dissertation proposals must be approved by the dissertation committee within six months of the demonstration of competency before students are officially admitted to candidacy for the PhD.

Course Requirements
Master of Arts Degree
Degree requirements include 32 graduate credits in sociology or approved courses in other schools in the University.

PhD Degree
Thirty-six credits beyond the MA or its equivalent (24 for those students with departmentally granted master's degrees), in sociology or approved courses of instruction in other departments or schools in the University.

Granting the Degree
The co-director of graduate studies for the ACS concentration recommends that the University grant the PhD in sociology when the student has fulfilled the University residence and doctoral research requirements, passed an oral examination of the dissertation conducted by the University, and deposited with the University a copy of the dissertation approved by the examining committee.

Typical Program of Study

First Year: Four core courses, including one core course from the concentration in world historical social change; two advanced courses offered by ACS faculty (24 credits).

Second Year: Two core courses; four advanced courses or courses in other departments (MA awarded with completion of 32 credits).

Third Year: Remaining course requirements completed. Studies concentrate on preparation for demonstration of competence. Completion of demonstration of competence (PhD qualifying examinations) (18 credits).

Fourth Year: Completion of all requirements for advancement to PhD candidacy. Teaching departmental course. Doctoral research (One credit per term).

Fifth Year: Doctoral research.

Sixth Year: Dissertation defense and submission of completed dissertation. (One credit per term; four credits in term in which dissertation is deposited).

Concentration Faculty
Concentration Faculty, 1997-98

Casparis, John, Associate Professor, PhD, Sociology, Brown

Dubofsky, Melvin, Professor (joint with history), PhD, History, Rochester

Flint, John, Professor, PhD, Sociology, Wisconsin

Geschwender, James, Professor and Chair, PhD, Sociology, Michigan State

King, Anthony, Professor (joint with art history), PhD, Brunel

Kraft, Philip, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Sociology, Washington (St. Louis), Co-director of Graduate Studies for the Concentration in American and Comparative Studies

Murray, Martin J., Professor, PhD, Sociology, Texas (Austin)

Petras, James, Professor, PhD, Political Science, California (Berkeley)

Associated Faculty:
Freedman, Martin, School of Management
Klein, Heinz K., School of Management
Painter, Michael, Department of Anthropology
Reiter, Sara, School of Management
Teitelbaum, Kenneth, School of Education and Human Development

Recent graduate seminar topics have included:

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Course Offerings/ Undergraduate

NOTE: Unless otherwise noted, all undergraduate courses carry 4 credits and are offered every year.

SOC 111. SOCIAL CHANGE: THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
Analyzes various perspectives regarding long-term his torical change, including the world system, dependency, and modernization approaches. Focuses on socio-economic forces that have shaped the modern world. Attention on long-term process of change (including urban and rural transformations in historical perspective), secular trends and cyclical rhythms in the world economy, along with the socio-cultural manifestations of global transformation.

SOC 112. SOCIAL CHANGE: SOCIOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS
Investigates key theoretical problem areas in the social sciences, including: the relationship between structure and agency, world inequality (development and underde velopment), power and the state, ideology and consciousness, and social organizations and social movements. Focuses principally upon conceptual themes and perspectives, with special attention devoted to social theories and leading theorists, including rigorous discussions of main ideas and concepts defining the social sciences.

SOC. 113. SOCIAL CHANGE: GENDER RELATIONS AND SOCIAL LIFE
Investigates various approaches to studying gender relations, including social roles versus social construction, nature versus nurture, and labelling perspectives. Emphasizes family and kinship relations from an historical perspective, construction of social identities, women and men, and masculinity and femininity in the context of the life cycle.

SOC 114. SOCIAL CHANGE: ENTERPRISES, MARKETS, AND WORK
Analyzes the origins and development of the modern corporation and the relationship between corporate structures, markets, and work. Emphasizes the evolution of the modern business enterprise, corporate strategies and structures, the changing nature of work, shifting occupational structures, wealth and power, and income inequality.

SOC 115. SOCIAL CHANGE: RACE AND CLASS
Explores the complex interplay between race and class. Focuses on issues of race (including the way it has been defined), ethnicity, class structures and class stratification, and communities.

SOC 180-189. SPECIAL TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY
Intensive study of particular topic to be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit if different topic offered.

SOC 225. SOCIOLOGY OF WORK AND OCCUPATIONS
Meaning of work in western industrial societies; emphasis on contemporary U.S. Impact of technological and cultural change on occupational structure and work force. Recent changes in nature of both blue-collar and white-collar work; changes in participation by racial and ethnic minorities and by women; relationship between American work force and those of developing countries.

SOC 226 (also AFST 226). SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
Structural conditions that stimulate rise of social movements; social psychological factors that motivate individuals to support, ignore, or resist social movements; conditions that affect "career" and probability of success or failure of any particular movement. Social movements of present (women's movement, black revolt), recent past (civil rights movement, students' movement), or distant past (Utopian movements).

SOC 240. WOMEN OF COLOR IN THE U.S.
Examination of the diverse struggles (political, economic, social, legal, etc.) of Asian, Native American, African American, and Latina/Chicana women in the U.S. and the ways in which public institutions and agencies (federal, state, local) deal with women of color.

SOC 251. DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
Theories of deviant behavior, illustrations from studies of delinquency, mental illness, alcohol and other drug use, etc. Implications of control policies such as hospitalization, imprisonment, therapy.

SOC 252. SOCIAL CHANGE IN PUERTO RICO
Development of capitalism in Puerto Rico since 1898. Interrelationship of economic, political, and class structures. Process of industrialization, changes in form of local state after 1945.

SOC 254 (also WOMN 254). FAMILY AND KINSHIP
Perspectives on family structure and functioning; conse quences of social class and other variables on stability and effectiveness of family; effects of family on personality.

SOC 256. GENDER AND SEXUAL IDENTITIES
Origins of contemporary sex roles and gender relations. Biological, social, and cultural bases of sex role differ ences and sexual identities; social structural and cross-cultural variations in contemporary sex-role development and sexual identities; emergence of alternative lifestyles. Critical examination of social-analytic perspectives on gender and sexuality.

SOC 260. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE U.S.
Various theoretical perspectives for analyzing the nature of contemporary social conflicts and problems in the U.S. Issues raised may include social inequalities of various kinds, poverty, unemployment and the working poor, gender and race discrimination, and crime and social justice.

SOC 263. FROM POOR LAW TO WELFARE STATE
Social services in the United States from the colonial era to the present. Issues of child welfare, public health, schooling, social work as a profession. Comparisons with welfare systems of other nations.

SOC 270 (also WOMN 270). GROWING UP FEMALE IN 19TH-CENTURY ENGLAND
Childhood and adolescence in 19th-century England in relation to work, family, education, and sex roles of period. Changes in nature of childhood and family life with special regard to experiences of work and working-class girls and women. Variety of research materials used.

SOC 275. LABOR AND SOCIETY IN CONTEMPORARY JAPAN
Critical examination of the myth that the labor-manage ment relationship in Japan is intrinsically harmonious due to cultural traditions embedded in Japanese society. Analysis of history of Japanese labor and labor movement; real conditions of Japanese workers in current rapid reorganization of work force.

SOC 276 (also HIST 257). THE AMERICAN WORKING CLASSES SINCE 1877
American working classes in industrial era: ethnic, racial, occupational characteristics, changing quality of life, evolution of organized labor movement, labor's various forms of political action. Working class culture: religion, family structure, recreation.

SOC 277. WEALTH, POWER, AND POVERTY IN U.S.
Focuses on how the concentration of wealth in the U.S. affects state and social policies, living standards, the mass media and political military and ideological power. Investigation of the historical foundations for structural inequalities in contemporary U.S.; examination of sources of political, economic, and social power.

SOC 280-289. SPECIAL TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY
Intensive study of particular topics to be announced in advance. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: consent of instructor.

SOC 300. POST-WORLD WAR II AMERICA
Major economic, social, political, and cultural changes in the U.S. in post-World War II era; U.S. in world economy, class transformation, social and cultural changes; outcomes for social life of such movements as feminism and environmentalism, the "new" immigration; the shift to a service economy, consumerism. Particular topical focus varies.

SOC 305. PROBLEMS OF METHOD
Examination of a range of research strategies and procedures for studying social relations, ranging from the digging out of subtleties of interpersonal relations to the portrayal of features of historical eras and of large-scale social change. Discussion of examples of each of several types of social research and of general methodological issues.

SOC 310. DEVELOPMENT AND ECOLOGY
Focuses on the interaction between socio-economic in stitutions and class interests and their impact on the environment. Examines the role of multinational corpora tions. State development policies and grassroots movements in a variety of ecological settings. Case studies focus on agricultural and industrial policies and their impact on food, health, and natural resources.

SOC 311 (also AFST 311). AFRICAN WORLD SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE
Understanding the process of change in African sub-Saharan societies, mentalities, economies, and culture. Examined are: natural environment and major historical turning-points; sociological heritage of so-called traditional societies; impact of Islam as a long-distance relationship with worlds of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean; organization of a western world economy based on Atlantic trade in slaves, in raw materials; colonial imperialism; 20th century unrest, reactions, problems.

SOC 313. SLAVERY, RACE, AND CULTURE
Cross-cultural and socio-historical analyses of slavery and slave systems, including redefinition of social groups within the world economy. Draws on materials form the U.S. and elsewhere where slavery took root and developed. Different experiences of slavery, impact of slavery on populations of African origin and on the formation of African and African-diaspora cultures; response of these populations to slavery.

SOC 321. RACE AND CULTURAL RELATIONS IN THE WORLD
Historical origins of "race" and "racism;" the growth and development of racial, ethnic, and national identities. Cultural expressions of "race" and "ethnicity." Topics selected may vary.

SOC 324. WOMEN'S WORK
Social and historical processes through which work is organized and allocated on basis of gender; relationship of these processes to changes in world economy. Growth in women's poverty and struggles of women in both paid and unpaid labor force.

SOC 328. COMPARATIVE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Origins and development strategies of regimes in various zones or regions of the world. Social composition of regimes; changes in social base that accompany shifts in development policies. Consideration of costs/benefits that accrue to different classes.

SOC 330. LATIN AMERICAN WOMEN
Political, social, and economic roles of women in Latin America. Emphasis placed on post-World War II devel opments. The problems and struggles of women from indigenous communities; the experience of women in the rural, urban, mining, industrial, service, and informal sectors; and women's survival under military dictator ships. The impact of colonialism, neo-colonialism, and U.S. foreign policy on women's lives within the context of slavery, capitalism, and socialism will be examined. Explores the interrelationship between race, ethnicity /nationality, class, gender, and sexual orientation/preference.

SOC 331. RACIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE U.S.
Primary emphasis on black Americans. Theories of racial stratification (viz: assimilation, white racism or prejudice, internal colony, social class); comparison of these theories with historical experiences of black Americans. Attempts at black political organization and movements.

SOC 340. WOMEN AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
Focuses on the interrelationship between gender, race /ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation/preference, and on how these influence the causes for which juvenile and adult women are arrested and incarcerated in local jails, state and federal institutions, immigration facilities, concentration camps, and juvenile detention centers. Also examines the types of offenses for which juvenile and adult women are arrested, the punishment they receive, and the treatment they face once institutionalized. Attention will be given to how women respond to the conditions of incarceration.

SOC 358. BUREAUCRACIES AND POWER
Structure and functioning of large-scale bureaucracies such as corporations, government departments, and international agencies. Historical perspective on changes in the theory and practice of internal organization and administration of bureaucracies. The issues of power, control, and social responsibility will be addressed.

SOC 359. URBAN SOCIOLOGY
Political-economy of urban processes, covering contemporary issues such as economic restructuring, globalization, the "new" international division of labor, and the "new immigrants" in global cities. Comparison of several cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. However, particular emphasis given to New York City and Miami.

SOC 360. RELIGION, SELF, AND SOCIETY
Social change analysis of religious role, ritual and belief systems in comparative historical perspective. Major focus on the Judeo-Christian tradition within the world capitalist system including conflict within and between groups composing that tradition as well as the process of secularization. Significant attention to the social formation of religious identity and change particularly in 20th-century American society.

SOC 361. POPULATION
Determinants and consequences of population processes and trends. Relevance to such social problems as poverty, environmental deterioration, and health problems.

SOC 362. PUERTO RICAN MIGRATION
The main goal of this course is to offer a broad and comprehensive understanding of the Puerto Rican expe rience in the U.S. The course will place the Puerto Rican experience in a comparative perspective relative to other Caribbean and Latino migrations to the U.S., and Carib bean migrations to Western Europe.

SOC 364. MUSIC, LITERATURE, AND VISUAL ARTS
A critical examination of selected literature devoted to the historical sociological study of settings within which artistic, musical, and literary activities are organized as these are shaped by systems of class, status, and power. Major themes include: (1) a contrast between changes in elite and popular music; (2) elite and popular literature.

SOC 368. POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY
Impact of social structure and social psychological factors on political attitudes and behavior of significant groups and strata. Structure of such groups; social char acteristics of leaders and members, analyzed in light of sociological theory. Elites, intellectuals, students, women, ethnic, and religious groups.

SOC 370. SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Critical evaluation of the sociohistorical processes resulting in various types of stratification and inequality in contemporary social settings. Relationship among class, status, and power. Class consciousness and conflict; critical understanding of various perspectives explaining social inequality. Focus on the basic question "who gets what and why." Consideration of classical views on social class, and American stratification theory. Examination of class inequality, gender inequality, race inequality, and various barriers to social mobility.

SOC 371. THEORIES OF SOCIAL CHANGE
How social theorists analyze large-scale social change, conceptions of origins, structure, development of modern social systems, classes and social groups, the state and bureaucracy, problems of rationalization and technology, problems of theory and method. Special topics may include: the "Rise of the West"; and the origins and transformations of colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, and women's oppression.

SOC 374. CHINA IN THE 20th CENTURY
Incorporation, imperialism, and social transformation; rise and demise of revolutionary movements; the Guomindang and Communist parties, nationalism, and modernization; the party-state, socialist transformation, and market transitions; labor, peasant, and women's movements; U.S.-China-Taiwan relations; China's rise as a regional and global power.

SOC 375. ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY
Social organization of economic institutions; meaning and value of work in world-historical perspective. The politics of technology, skills and organization of enterprises. Conflicts between economic markets and firms, and production relations. Special topics may vary.

SOC 380-389. SPECIAL TOPICS

SOC 395. INTERNSHIP
Meets special needs and interests of students doing independent research or community projects. Written analytical term report of project work required. May be repeated only as elective. Prerequisite: prior arrangement with and consent of chosen instructor.

SOC 397. INDEPENDENT STUDY     variable credit
Tutorial or seminar study of special problems which meets needs of advanced students. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

S0C 420. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND PERSPECTIVES
Selected writings of classical and modern social theorists. Nature of theorizing in contemporary sociology; survey of current debates in sociological theory. Topics may include a critical assessment of positivist, functionalist, Marxist, structural-functionalist, feminist, critical theory, and post-modernist approaches to sociological analysis.

SOC 480-489. SPECIAL TOPICS

SOC 491. TEACHING PRACTICUM
Independent study through teaching in particular sociology course. Course instructor directs students in prepara tion of syllabi, other course materials, devising and reading examinations; lecturing and/or leading discussion; academic counseling, May be repeated for total of no more than eight credits. Credit may not be earned in conjunction with course in which student is currently enrolled. Does not satisfy major or all-college requirements. Prerequisites: consent of instructor and department. P/F only. Students must consult department for detailed guidelines.

SOC 498. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH

SOC 499. HONORS/SENIOR SEMINAR
Student or student-faculty initiated research project. Prerequisites: sociology course(s) in topic of research and consent of instructor. Paper written for this course may be submitted for consideration for honors, on advice of instructor.

Note: Limited number of advanced undergraduates may be admitted to graduate seminars with consent of instructor. See graduate program information.

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Course Offerings/ Graduate

First-Year Doctoral Seminars
(Given annually; usually three are offered each term.)

SOC 601. THE STUDY OF THE MODERN WORLD-SYSTEM      variable credit
World capitalist system from its origins to present. Formation of axial division of labor, transition in Europe from feudalism to capitalism. Interstate system: balance of power, imperialism, nationalism, hegemony. Labor processes in core and periphery and their integration.

SOC 602. RACE, CLASS, AND GENDER      variable credit
This course is designed to examine the manner in which race, ethnicity, and gender have been socially constructed. It assumes that the process is not arbitrary but rather reflects the historical experiences of peoples. Further, this course will explore the extent to which gender is differentially constructed within racial or ethnic groups and the consequences that this differential construction has for the location that such groups occupy within the societal stratification order.

SOC 603. ECONOMIC EXPANSION, SOCIAL CHANGE, AND CLASS FORMATION IN THE PERIPHERY      variable credit
In analyzing the global expansion of capital and its consequences we consider the role of the colonial and post-colonial state in transforming class relationships and revolutionizing productive processes in peripheral societies. We are concerned with the processes and structural outcomes of post-colonial societies and their variants. We explore various interpretations of peripheral industrialization processes, the principal features and future prospects and the role of agriculture and the countryside in colonial and capitalist development. In each case, we explore the interaction of three features: the state, international capital, and changing social classes in city and countryside. Finally, we consider the relationship between peripheral development and revo lutionary change, including socialist alternatives.

SOC 604. DEVELOPMENT STUDIES      variable credit
Contemporary patterns of development in historical perspective. Imperial expansion of core-states; industrialization; multi-national firms and international trade; agricultural structures; state in Third World; class formation; national and social revolutionary movements.

SOC 605. THE STUDY OF SOCIALIST DEVELOPMENT      variable credit
Socialist thought, movements, and historical development. Processes and conceptions of transition to socialism. Class struggles; reform vs. revolution; party and state; plan and market; bureaucracy and democracy; socialist states and the capitalist world-economy; alienation and liberation; crisis and reform.

SOC 606. URBAN-INDUSTRIAL STUDIES      variable credit
Political-economies of core capitalist countries. Changing structures of working classes and organizations of production. Formation of minorities. Changing compositions of capitalist classes. Changing significance of class in national politics. State policies and corporate expansion. Phases of capitalist development.

SOC 607. THEORETICAL STUDIES      variable credit
Social theories in relation to world-historical development. Smith, Marx, and Weber, their followers and critics. Division of labor; the market; status-group, class, class-struggle; state-formation and bureaucracy; con sciousness; accumulation, revolutionary social change.

SOC 608. STUDIES IN METHODS      variable credit
History-theory tension as organizing contradiction. Theoretical terms and arguments. Historical terms and descriptions (verbal, numerical). Narratively-organized explanations. Issues of concept-formation, measurement, causal imputation. Historical alternatives as counterfactual constructions. Comparative method.

SOC 609. ASPECTS OF METHOD IN WORLD-HISTORICAL INQUIRY      variable credit
Experimental vs. historical sciences: the place of theory and description in inquiry. Outline of a world-historical study. On theoretical arguments: sources; logical con siderations (formal, dialectical, fuzzy versions); realistic historical alternatives; systems and "complexity"; concept-formation. On historical descriptions: sources; logical considerations (categories, forms of variation, their historicities); precision vs. accuracy; statistical descriptions (from enumerations to frequency-distributions to joint distributions; statistical relations, their measures, their assumptions; indicators and indices). On the history-theory tension: image of the "whole"; measurement of concepts, conceptualization of descriptions; explanation, causal imputation, historical alternatives.

Advanced Colloquia
(Most are given every other year. Some colloquia, as indicated in the course descriptions, are full courses given in a six-week period.)

SOC 621. NATION-STATES, SEX, AND MODERNITY      variable credit
Exploration of conflictive process whereby modernity, the state, and national identities emerged, as class-based, sexualized, and racialized constructs. Historical specificities, socioeconomic contexts, disputed sign systems, East-West and North-South differences; linkages between the social body, physical bodies, and the body politic; current theories on the relationship between the state, economic structures, and other power relations; examples of the mobilization capacities of nationalism, racism, [hetero]sexism, and the various forms of identity politics responding to these hegemonic discourses in various instances of state formation.

SOC 623. THE SOCIAL DYNAMICS OF PUNISHMENT      variable credit
Notions of criminality used during the past 200 years to criminalize the behavior of sectors of society deemed to be "dangerous" to the social order; institutions created to control such behavior (e.g., police forces, public executions, slavery, work houses, jails, state and federal prisons, chain gangs, reformatories, mental institutions, Indian reservations, concentration camps, immigration detention centers, white supremacist groups); differences and similarities in the types of punishment applied to men, women, and children of different nationalities, races, ages, social classes, and sexual orientations; the notion of "state" crimes and their impact on the social structure.

SOC 626. CLASS, GENDER, AND CHILDHOOD IN INDUSTRIALIZATION      variable credit
Impact of change on experiences of children, gender roles. Differences of practice and ideology in developing middle class, in new industrial working class. Interaction between classes over issues relating to childhood. Full course in six weeks.

SOC 631. THE WORKING CLASS IN THE UNITED STATES      variable credit
Formation and growth of working class in U.S.; 20th -century developments. Capital-accumulation and proletarianization on world-scale, and major migrations to and within U.S. labor-market processes, class-relations, and labor laws. Changing occupational and social composition, geographical location of U.S. labor force. Forms and varieties of working-class communities (personal networks) and organizations (unions, parties). Ethnicity, race, and culture, in relation to labor-force formation and reproduction, to workers' movements, and to class-consciousness. Classical writings in labor and social history; recent works using newer social-history approach.

SOC 633. COLONIZATION AND DECOLONIZATION      variable credit
Theoretical questions about relation between world-scale capital accumulation processes and incorporation of peripheral zones; the transition(s) to capitalism; class formation, including local bourgeoisies, peasantries and working classes; formal explanations vs. historical accounts of colonization and decolonization.

SOC 635. THE WORLD-HISTORICAL STUDY OF STRATIFICATION      variable credit
Current theories, especially of racial and ethnic stratification. Recent work from world-historical perspective on patterns and processes of racial and ethnic stratification. Formation, reproduction of stratification associated with historical relations of production.

SOC 637. GENEALOGIES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT      variable credit
How notions of "underdevelopment" and "the periphery" originated and how they operate within contemporary social sciences, literary studies, and philosophy: tensions between these notions and the socioeconomic, political, and cultural realities they supposedly represent; the deployment of such categories and realities within the invention of "the West" as an original classification/space/economy and of "America," "Africa," and "the Orient" as its derivations-imitations; the functions of feminization, sexualization, the denial of co-evalness, teleology, and infantilization in the principal paradigms of the human sciences; partial exploration of alternative conceptual frameworks.

SOC 647. PERIPHERAL SOCIAL STRUCTURES      variable credit
Methodological problems in the study of peripheral societies; nationalism; developmentalism; the peripheral state; industrialization and populism; local bourgeoisies and their politics; crisis and social movements; prospects for democracy and civil rights.

SOC 648. AGRARIAN DEVELOPMENT      variable credit
Review of the classical debates and the current literature on agrarian transformation; agrarian structures under capitalism; peasantry and its differentiation; petty commodity production; state and the ideology of petty commodity producers; agriculture and the world market.

SOC 651. CAPITALISM IN THE 20TH CENTURY      variable credit
The rise and demise of market capitalism. Resurgence of mercantilism and struggle for world hegemony. Corporate capitalism, its effects on the social structures of the world-economy. Origins of the present crisis, transition to post-capitalist world system.

SOC 653. TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPEAN SOCIETY      variable credit
State-society relations during the inter­war years and after WWII; dynamics of the welfare state; immigration and citizenship; the emergence of the European Union; relations with Eastern Europe and Mediterranean countries; core-periphery relations within the European Union.

SOC 661. HISTORICAL CONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES       variable credit
Emergence of a scholarly arena known as the social sciences distinct from both natural sciences and the humanities; the structuring of the social science disciplines; the current intellectual and organization dilemmas.

SOC 671. ADVANCED THEORETICAL STUDIES      variable credit
Trajectories of theoretical social science. Interrelations among three organizing frameworks: Smith's political economy, Marx's critique, Weber's anti-critique. Estab lished views and dubious voices. Today's many marxisms.

SOC 673. ADVANCED WORLD-SYSTEM STUDIES       variable credit

SOC 690. SPECIAL TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY      variable credit
Used as needed for once-only or proposed new colloquia. See current course offerings.

Teaching
SOC 691A-691B. TEACHING OF COLLEGE SOCIOLOGY       variable credit
Individual supervision for beginning teachers. Prerequisite: written consent of instructor, or director of graduate studies.

Independent Studies

SOC 693-694. CONTINUING DISSERTATION RESEARCH SEMINAR      variable credit
Appropriate for students designing or conducting doctoral research.

SOC 697. ADVANCED INDEPENDENT STUDIES      variable credit
Prerequisite: written statement of detailed plan, schedule of studies, approved in advance by instructor. Registration requires written permission of instructor and of principal advisor or of director of graduate studies.

SOC 698. PREDISSERTATION RESEARCH      variable credit
Independent reading and/or research in preparation for comprehensive examinations for admission to PhD candidacy, and/or preparation of dissertation prospectus.

SOC 699. DISSERTATION      variable credit
Open to those admitted formally to status of candidate for PhD degree at this University.

SOC 700. CONTINUOUS REGISTRATION      1 credit
Required of inactive students who wish to maintain their matriculated status. No credits toward degree requirements. May be taken for maximum of four semesters. (Students requiring longer period of inactivity should withdraw, reapply when able to resume their studies.) Prerequisite: graduate director's and vice provost's written permission.

SOC 707. RESEARCH SKILLS       1-4 credits
Development of research skills required for graduate study. May not be applied toward course credits for any graduate degree. Prerequisite: approval of relevant graduate program directors or department chairs.

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