Geography


Faculty

( ) Year of initial appointment at Binghamton

Blumler, Mark, Assistant Professor, PhD, 1992, University of California at Berkeley: Biogeography, early agriculture, environmental history. (1991)

Budin, Morris, Professor Emeritus, PhD, 1954, New School for Social Research: Statistical geography, urban planning analysis. (1964)

Butler, Joseph H., Professor Emeritus, PhD, 1960, Columbia University: Economic geography, water resources. (1963)

Dutko, David M., Adjunct Lecturer, JD, 1978, State University of New York at Buffalo. (2000)

Frazier, John W., Professor and Director of Graduate Program, PhD, 1976, Kent State University: Urban geography, geographical theory, applications of geographic information systems. (1976)

Henry, Norah F., Associate Professor and Associate Dean for Administration, Harpur College of Arts and Sciences, PhD, 1976, Kent State University: Automated cartography, medical geography, social geography. (1976)

Hsu, Shin-yi, Professor, PhD, 1967, University of California at Los Angeles: Cartography, remote sensing and GIS, East Asia. (1970)

Margai, Florence, Assistant Professor, PhD, 1991, Kent State University: Spatial statistics, environmental analysis, Africa. (1994)

Montz, Burrell E., Professor, PhD, 1980, University of Colorado: Natural hazards, resource management and planning. (1979)

Palella, William C., Adjunct Lecturer, JD, Syracuse University. (2000)

Sheret, Gordon, Adjunct Lecturer, MA, 1997, State University of New York at Binghamton: Geographic information systems. (1999)

Sweet, Robert, Adjunct Lecturer, MA, 1989, State University of New York at Binghamton: Urban planning. (1992)

Tettey-Fio, Eugene, Assistant Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies, PhD, 1996, Kent State University: GIS and advanced cartography, location allocation modeling. (1995)

Timofeeff, Nicolay P., Associate Professor Emeritus, PhD, 1967, Columbia University: Physical geography, quantitative geography, computer graphics. (1966)

Willis, Lucius S., Lecturer, MA, 1983, State University of New York at Binghamton: Geographic information systems. (1983)

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Undergraduate Programs

The Geography Department offers students the opportunity to study a number of contemporary problems such as physical resource development, urban decay, business geography, pollution and other human problems. Geography stresses strategies for solving locational and environmental problems. Map design, computer mapping, GIS, statistics and the use of remotely sensed data are central to the field.

The department offers four tracks within its BA program. The general curriculum encourages interdisciplinary work; the computer applications geography specialization emphasizes computers and related automated techniques used in geographic analysis; the urban planning track emphasizes the environmental, economic and institutional aspects of urban planning; the environmental track focuses on environmental and natural resource management. All four tracks provide preparation for graduate work and careers in public and private planning agencies. The courses emphasize the problem approach, both theoretical and applied. Double majors are encouraged and special programs may be designed on request.

The Geography Department views the grade of D as passing but unsatisfactory. Courses passed with a grade of D, or P, do not fulfill requirements for the major.

Grievance procedure: resolution of student-faculty grievances should be worked out in accordance with the departmental grievance procedure, available from the department office.

Independent study courses (GEOG 497) count toward the major tracks only with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies.

BA, Track 1: General Geography

• GEOG 121. Physical Geography

• GEOG 151. World Regional Geography

• GEOG 261. Introduction to GIS and Cartography

• MATH 147. Statistics

• Two cultural/regional courses

• Four upper-division courses

TOTAL: 10 courses (40 hours). Credit is granted for equivalent courses.

BA, Track 2: Computer Applications in Human Environmental Analysis

GEOG 103. Computer-Based Analysis in Geography

• GEOG 261. Introduction to GIS and Cartography

• GEOG 361. Introduction to Raster GIS and GPS

• GEOG 465. Remote Sensing and GIS

• GEOG 463. GIS and Spatial Analysis

• MATH 147. Statistics

• CS 140 or 160. (preferred) Introduction to Computer Programming

Three courses to be selected from the following:

• GEOG 221. (a course in physical geography) or GEOG 233. Urban Geography

• GEOG 476. Environmental Analysis

• GEOG 481. Special Topics (techniques-oriented)

• GEOG 482. Applied Urban Research

• GEOG 495. Internship

• GEOG 497. Independent Study

• GEOG 499. Honors Thesis

TOTAL: 10 courses (40 hours). Credit is granted for equivalent courses.

BA,Track 3: Urban and Regional Planning

• GEOG 121. Physical Geography

• GEOG 261. Introduction to GIS and Cartography

• MATH 147. Statistics

• GEOG 233. Urban Geography

• One cultural/regional course

• Two urban/economic courses

• One physical/environmental course

• One mapping course

• One applications course

TOTAL: 10 courses (40 hours). Credit is granted for equivalent courses.

BA, Track 4: Environmental and Resource Geography

• GEOG 121. Physical Geography

• GEOG 261. Introduction to GIS and Cartography

• MATH 147. Statistics or

MATH 221. Calculus I

• One regional/cultural course

• Four physical/environmental courses

• Two courses from mapping and applications categories

TOTAL: 10 courses (40 hours). Credit is granted for equivalent courses.

Honors in Geography

Four credit hours are permitted for those geography majors interested in writing an honors thesis. Students must be declared geography majors, have a 3.5 grade-point average for geography courses attempted and be in the final year of undergraduate studies. Not more than one semester (total) in researching, writing and editing of the thesis is permitted. Requirements and guidelines are available in the Geography Department office.

Requirements for Geography Minors

Computer Applications

The six courses required for this minor are:

• GEOG 261

• One course from: GEOG 101, 121, 151

• Four courses: GEOG 361, 463, 465 and 475.

Environmental Resource Management

The six courses required for this minor are:

• GEOG 121, 151, 232

• Any three courses from: GEOG 323, 330, 339, 341, 361, 421 and 422.

Physical Geography

The six courses required for the minor are:

• GEOG 121, 151, 261

• Any three courses from: GEOG 321, 323, 325, 341, 361, 421 and 422.

Joint Program: Geography BA/Master of Landscape Architecture

Geography majors are eligible for participation in a special joint program between Binghamton University and SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse. The program permits students to take the final year of undergraduate education in Syracuse while beginning the master of landscape architecture program. The undergraduate degree in geography is granted by Binghamton University; the MLA is granted by SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Contact Professor Eugene Tettey-Fio for details. 

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Graduate Programs

The department’s master of arts program in geography educates qualified students for work toward the PhD degree, and for professional careers in government service, industry and regional or urban planning. There is a thesis option for each of the four tracks. Each track requires a total of 40 credits, as well as oral and written comprehensive examinations.

Admission

Undergraduate specialization in geography is not required. However, students lacking a suitable background in geography are required to take appropriate undergraduate work beyond course requirements for the MA degree. The deficiencies to be made up are determined by the department. All applicants are required to submit scores of the Graduate Record Examination aptitude tests.

MA, Track 1: General Geography

The program provides disciplinary foundation along classical liberal arts lines that can lead to interdisciplinary work in scholarly areas such as conservation, environmental management, economic development and international studies. A total of 40 credits is required.

Required:

• GEOG 500. Geographical Theory

• GEOG 533. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis I.

Select two of the following:

• GEOG 573. Seminar in Physical Geography

• GEOG 575. Resource Management

• GEOG 581. Applied Urban Research

• GEOG 599. Thesis.

Plus five electives, no more than three in any one area:

Area 1  Area 2 Area 3 
GEOG 508 GEOG 502 GEOG 509
GEOG 535 GEOG 532 GEOG 511 
GEOG 576 GEOG 545  GEOG 566 
GEOG 591 
Electives are to be approved by advisor.

Language requirement: a foreign language.
 

MA, Track 2: Cartography and Geographical Information Systems

This track educates students as spatial analysts, with emphasis on cartography, remote sensing and geographic information systems. The other essential components of the program are theory, research methods and advanced statistics. The objective of this track is career preparation in the specified area. To fulfill this goal, practical experience obtained from internships and field research is integrated into the formal curriculum. This track also provides the option of pursuing the PhD degree at many institutions. A total of 40 credits is required.

Prerequisites include elementary statistics and GEOG 261, Cartography, or their equivalents.

Required:

• GEOG 500. Geographical Theory

• GEOG 502. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems and Computer Mapping (GIS I)

• GEOG 503A and 503B. GIS in a Visual Basic

• GEOG 533. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis I

• GEOG 545. Advanced GIS and Spatial Analysis.*

Select three of the following:**

• GEOG 532. Remote Sensing of the Environment

• GEOG 550. Photogrammetry

• GEOG 555. Seminar in GIS Research

• GEOG 566. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis II

• GEOG 598. Internship in Geography, Cartography and Planning.

Select two of the following (substitution is at the discretion of the director of graduate studies):

• GEOG 570. Urban Planning Seminar

• GEOG 573. Seminar in Physical Geography

• GEOG 574. Economic Geography Seminar

• GEOG 576. Advanced Environmental Analysis

• GEOG 597. Independent Study (in Cartography or GIS)

• GEOG 599. Thesis Research.

Language requirement:

• Approved computer language or foreign language.

* GEOG 545 must be taken before GEOG 555.

** Any three computer science graduate courses may be substituted for three of the four geography courses to be selected for completion of track.

MA, Track 3: Environmental and Resource Management

The program educates students in physical environmental systems, with particular emphasis on the integration of the environmental and institutional aspects of planning. Among the essential components of this concentration are geographic techniques, geomorphology, environmental concerns, community involvement and practical experience through internship programs. As with Track 2, graduates from this program may work for planning agencies or pursue an advanced degree. A total of 40 credits is required.

Prerequisite: elementary statistics or equivalent.

Required:

• GEOG 500. Geographical Theory

• GEOG 509. Conservation of Natural Resources or

GEOG 575. Resource Management

• GEOG 533. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis I

• GEOG 542. Water Resource Management

• GEOG 573. Seminar in Physical Geography

• GEOG 576. Advanced Environmental Analysis.

Select four of the following:

• GEOG 502. GIS and Spatial Analysis

• GEOG 511. Advanced Geomorphology I — Fluvial

• GEOG 516. Hydrogeology

• GEOG 522. Biogeography

• GEOG 523. Soils and Environment

• GEOG 530. Natural Hazards

• GEOG 545. Advanced GIS and Spatial Analysis

• GEOG 566. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis II

• GEOG 574. Economic Geography Seminar

• GEOG 598. Internship in Geography

• GEOG 599. Thesis Research.

Language requirement:

• Approved computer language.

MA, Track 4: Urban and Retail Planning

This program encompasses urban analysis and planning, with emphasis on the integration of the institutional, environmental and urban-economic aspects of both public and private planning. Essential components of the program are geographic techniques, urban development, community involvement, seminars in urban planning and practical experience through internship programs. As with Track 2, graduates from this program may work for planning agencies or pursue an advanced degree. A total of 40 credits is required.

Prerequisite: elementary statistics or equivalent.

Required:

• GEOG 500. Geographical Theory

• GEOG 502. GIS and Spatial Analysis

• GEOG 533. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis I

• GEOG 508. Urban Planning Seminar I

• GEOG 535. Urban Planing
Seminar II

• GEOG 574. Seminar in Economic Geography

• GEOG 581. Applied Urban Research.

Select three of the following:

• GEOG 518. Legal and Administrative Aspects of Planning

• GEOG 542. Water Resources Planning and Management

• GEOG 566. Advanced Statistical Techniques for Geographical and Spatial Analysis II

• GEOG 573. Seminar in Physical Geography

• GEOG 576. Advanced Environmental Analysis

• GEOG 595. Research and Colloquium

• GEOG 598. Internship in Geography, Cartography and Planning

• GEOG 599. Thesis Research.

Language requirement:

• Approved computer language.

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Course Offerings:
Undergraduate

NOTE: Unless otherwise noted, all undergraduate courses carry 4 credits and are offered every year.

Introductory/Service

Note: None of these can count toward the major.

GEOG 101. INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY: PEOPLE, LAND AND SPACE
Concepts basic to geographic inquiry, such as areal differentiation, environmental linkages, central place, human-environmental interaction, spatial organization, spatial interaction, spatial behavior. Problems of urban areas, population trends, economic development, human-land relationships.

GEOG 103. COMPUTER-BASED ANALYSIS IN GEOGRAPHY
Survey of major research themes of geography, environmental processes and patterns, human-environmental relationships, regionalization and spatial analysis. Introduces computer-based techniques and explains their use in research and understanding of geographical problems related to the aforementioned themes.

GEOG 120. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
A systematic study of processes that govern variations in atmospheric conditions over time and space. Elements of heat exchange, moisture exchange and dynamics of air movement examined in relation to causes for various climatic patterns on earth. Elements of applied climatology related to specific problems such as irrigation needs, wind erosion of soils, acid rain, water pollution, flood and storm prediction.

Core

GEOG 121. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Description, interpretation, human significance of major global patterns of climate, land forms and surface configurations, vegetation and soils. Energy flow processes in various subsystems of global earth-atmosphere system.

GEOG 261. INTRODUCTION TO GIS AND CARTOGRAPHY
Map compilation, map design and reproduction. Cartographic methods for mapping discontinuous and continuous areal data.

GEOG 151. WORLD REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
The world is partitioned into major regions or realms for comparison. The geographic similarities and differences between them are examined. The central theme is the interrelationship between nature, society and location. The roles of human institutions and how they vary and affect each other across the world are discussed.

GEOG 211. CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY: SOCIETY, ENVIRONMENT AND CHANGE
Ecological/spatial expressions and processes of culture. Interrelationship between human and physical environments.

GEOG 212. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES
Outline of the changes in the American landscape over time as a result of interactions of peoples and cultures with each other and with environment. Three themes are stressed; cultural diversity; human-environment relationships; and organization of space in differing cultural/political economic systems.

GEOG 221. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF GLOBAL CHANGE
Description of the major terrestrial biomes, both globally and in the U.S. Relationships to climate and soils, and effects of trophic interactions, climate change and humans on vegetation dynamics and species-diversity. Constraints on human use of environment. Methods for studying paleoenvironments and for predicting future changes in species-composition under human effects and global climate change.

GEOG 257. GEOGRAPHY OF THE MIDDLE EAST
Physical, environmental, social, historical and regional geography of the Middle East. Emphasis on the diversity of people in the region and their interactions with environment, with each other and with the people of other regions, both historically and today.

GEOG 259 (also MDVL 279J). EASTERN ASIA: LAND AND PEOPLE
Systematic study of landforms, climate, their effect on development of early regional cultures in China and Japan; population, rural and urban settlements in relation to natural resource management. Natural disasters and coping process; regional planning in modern China.

Introductory Urban/Economic

GEOG 232. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Spatial patterns of economic activity. Relationship of land use to spatially variable environmental factors. Introduction to location theory. Resource management problems. Environmental consequences of production processes and population growth.

GEOG 233. URBAN GEOGRAPHY
Processes involved in organization of space within urban areas. Theoretical urban models; their application in empirical case studies in developed and underdeveloped countries.

GEOG 235. INTRODUCTION TO URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING
Theories and practices of planning at urban and regional levels. Planning processes; environmental and ecological bases of planning; planning function in government; urban and regional dynamics; strategy and conflict theory; planner’s approach to locational analysis; grantsmanship planning data; planning implementation, neighborhood as effective planning unit; comprehensive master plan.

Physical/Environmental

GEOG 321 (also GEOL 211). GEOMORPHOLOGY
Sculpting of earth’s crust by exogenic forces, integration of classical and modern views in analysis of erosional and depositions landforms. Laboratory and field exercises; independent study. Three lectures, one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: GEOL 121 or introductory geology.

GEOG 323 (also ENVI 323). SOILS: PROPERTIES, PROCESSES AND DISTRIBUTION
Morphological properties of soils as natural bodies, factors in processes of development, role in natural ecosystems; and systems of classification at topographic, regional and global scales. Soil fertility and its role in land use. Prerequisite: GEOG 121 or equivalent.

GEOG 330 (also ENVI 330). NATURAL HAZARDS
Analysis of physical, geographic, political and perceptual aspects of natural hazards. Evaluation of physical environments in which natural hazards occur, land use and development patterns in hazardous areas, tools and methods for evaluating hazardousness and vulnerability. Prerequisites: GEOG 121 or ENVI 201; junior or senior standing.

GEOG 337. NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION: THEORY, POLICIES
AND PRACTICES

Historical and contemporary examination of geographic, economic, environmental, cultural and economic factors relating to natural resource use and management. Effective conservation of biota and of resources such as minerals, soils and water; policy goals; global and local control. Conservation policy practice and theory. Prerequisite: GEOG 121 or 232, BIOL 104 or 360, ENVI 101 or 102, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 339 (also ENVI 339). ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Geographic, environmental, economic and cultural determinants of resource management. Policy goals and decision-making elements influencing management of environmental and natural resources. Management policy, practice and theory. Prerequisites: any one of GEOG 121, 232, 233 or 235, or ENVI 101 and 201.

GEOG 341. WATER RESOURCE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Role of water in environmental planning. Hydrologic, engineering, economic, ecological and institutional aspects of water management. Runoff models. Flood hazard analysis. Water supply systems. Water quality management. Drainage basins as planning units. Field trips; research reports.

GEOG 421. ADVANCED PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY SEMINAR
Detailed study of selected aspects of landforms, climates, soils. Field measurement techniques, qualitative record analysis and interpretation. Prerequisite: GEOG 121 or GEOL 111.

GEOG 422 (also BIOL 368). BIOGEOGRAPHY
Ecological principles applied to the study of past, present and future distribution patterns of living organisms. Effects of earth history, spatial pattern, plate tectonics, climate and climate change and human impacts on biota. Prerequisites: GEOG 121 and/or an ecology course.

GEOG 476. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
Problem-solving skills in environmental management based on research design, spatial analysis and modeling. Topics include hazards and risk management; attitudinal and behavior analysis; waste management; environmental equity; and valuation of environmental goods. Prerequisite: any one of GEOG 121, 235, 337, 339 or ENVI 101, 102. Junior standing.

Urban/Economic

GEOG 333. RETAIL GEOGRAPHY
Examines the evolution of retail structure and the processes of retail location and strategy as consequences of urban changes in the United States. Techniques and methods of retail location decision-making, including those for store siting and trade area determination, are employed. Discussion of models and their applications is reinforced by practical assignments that involve field data collection and analysis.

GEOG 335. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF PLANNING
Applications of legislative action, administrative rules and regulations, court decisions to urban and regional planning issues. Specific legislative acts, their administration; particular major cases to develop basic techniques of legal research. Prerequisite: one urban geography course.

GEOG 345. URBAN PLANNING ANALYSIS I
Basic analytical methods used by urban and regional planners. New conceptions of functions of urban areas, population analysis and forecasting, industrial location and methods for attracting firms, commercial growth, the housing sector. Prerequisite: any one of GEOG 232, 233, 235 or ECON 360 or 362.

GEOG 445. URBAN PLANNING ANALYSIS II
Continuation of study of analytical techniques introduced in GEOG 345. Urban renewal, reorganization of local services, planning for leisure and recreation, transportation, zoning, overall plan and methods of evaluation. Prerequisite: GEOG 345.

GEOG 481. SPECIAL TOPICS GEOGRAPHY
Special urban research topics.

Mapping

GEOG 361. INTRODUCTION TO RASTER GIS AND GPS
Elementary photogrammetry; linear, area, height measurements on vertical photos. Interpretation of agricultural land use patterns, urban-industrial settings and landforms. Applications in regional planning, forestry, environmental pollution, etc., pursued by students. Prerequisite: GEOG 121 or 261.

GEOG 463. GIS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS
Fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS), from data acquisition to final reports and maps, with particular emphasis on their role in geographic analysis. Projects cover environmental topics (with IDRISI) and urban-economic topics (with MapInfo). ARC/Info is introduced. Prerequisites: GEOG 261 and declaration of a major or minor in geography.

GEOG 465. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
Fundamentals of remote sensing, various satellites and methods of data acquisition and processing, applications in land use mapping. Prerequisite: GEOG 361 or permission.

Applications

GEOG 495. INTERNSHIP IN GEOGRAPHY: PLANNING var. cr.
Internship in agencies such as planning and engineering departments, consulting firms. Prerequisites: two upper-level geography courses and consent of instructor.

Research

GEOG 497. INDEPENDENT STUDY var. cr.
Meets special needs and interests of advanced students on tutorial or seminar basis. Prerequisites: consent of instructor and department chair.

GEOG 499. HONORS THESIS var. cr.

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Course Offerings:
Graduate

*Pending Graduate Council approval.

GEOG 500. GEOGRAPHIC THEORY
Theoretical foundations of modern geography.

GEOG 502. GIS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS
The fundamentals of geographic information systems (GIS), from data acquisition to final reports and maps, with particular emphasis on their role in geographic analysis. Projects cover environmental topics (with ARC/INFO) and urban-economic topics (with MapInfo). Limited to geography students. Prerequisite: GEOG 261.

GEOG 503. SPECIAL TOPICS — GIS IN A VISUAL BASIC 2 cr.
Explores the use of map objects in a Visual Basic environment for the purpose of creating mapping output and conducting spatial analysis in a Windows environment. Prerequisite: GEOG 502 or equivalent.

GEOG 505. ADVANCED AIR PHOTO INTERPRETATION
Advanced photogrammetry, manual, semiautomatic and automatic photo interpretation techniques; their applications in urban and natural resources analysis.

GEOG 508. URBAN PLANNING SEMINAR I
Basic theory and techniques used in urban and regional planning analysis. Topics for papers include population analysis and forecasting, uses of planning data, regional analysis and balances, labor force policies, role of models in planning and cost-benefit analysis.

GEOG 509. CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Historical and contemporary examination of geographic, environmental, cultural and economic factors relating to natural resource use and management. Effective conservation of biota and of resources such as minerals, soils and water; policy goals; global and local control. Conservation policy, practice and theory. Prerequisites: one of the following: GEOG 121 or 232, BIOL 104 or 360, ENVI 101 or 102, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 511 (also GEOL 511). ADVANCED GEOMORPHOLOGY fall
Application of surface processes in solving problems of environmental and human significance. Course emphasizes a case-study approach, using examples of effects from landslides, surface hydrology, coastal zone preferences, subsidence.

GEOG 512 (also GEOL 512). ADVANCED GEOMORPHOLOGY II —GLACIAL every other spring
Historical and geological importance of glaciation periods. Analysis of vast landform changes created by glacial, periglacial, glaciofluvial processes. Reference paper, independent study project, field trips. Two lectures, one three-hour laboratory per week.

GEOG 516 (also GEOL 516). HYDROGEOLOGY spring
A survey of hydrogeology: hydrologic cycle; properties of rocks and soils; fluid flow in porous media (Darcy’s Law, diffusion equation); hydrological boundary conditions, numerical techniques; groundwater chemistry; case studies. Prerequisites: calculus and introductory geology, or consent of instructor.

GEOG 518. LEGAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING
Administrative structures of planning systems at local, state and federal levels. Particular administrative and legal relationships that apply to major programs such as federal housing, urban renewal, state financing, local zoning, etc.

GEOG 522. BIOGEOGRAPHY
Interrelationships between physical geography and ecology. Study and explanation of distribution patterns of living organisms.

GEOG 523. SOILS AND ENVIRONMENT
Study of basic properties of soils and pedogenic processes operating in environments. Survey of major types of soils and their world distributions, uses of soils, their basis of land capability assessment. Material presented in a structured modular format, highlighting the complexity of soils, their interaction with physical and environmental systems. Local field trips consist of examining and mapping soil development, collecting field measurements and samples, and performing mechanical and chemical tests.

GEOG 530. NATURAL HAZARDS
Analysis of physical, geographic, political and perceptual aspects of natural hazards. Evaluation of physical environments in which natural hazards occur, land use and development patterns in hazardous areas, tools and methods for evaluating hazardousness and vulnerability. Prerequisite: GEOG 121 or ENVI 201.

GEOG 531. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC FIELD STUDY
Application of field research techniques in geography to analysis and evaluation of human use of physical environment. Field research problems requiring reconnaissance, intensive and multiple data gathering techniques, quantitative and non-quantitative analytic methods. Written research reports.

GEOG 532. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
Remote electromagnetic sensing, including photographic infrared and radar imagery. Geographic research through manual and automated analysis of physical and cultural data. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

GEOG 533. ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR GEOGRAPHIC AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS I
Multivariate analysis that includes correlation and regression analysis, analysis of variance, chi-square tests. Prerequisite: introductory course in statistics.

GEOG 535. URBAN PLANNING SEMINAR II
Planning commercial development, industrial location planning, planning housing development, public and private sectors, planning reorganization of public services, transportation, urban renewal and zoning.

GEOG 536. LAND USE ANALYSIS
Analysis of urban, suburban and rural land and water use as basis for spatial planning, resource and environmental management. Application of remote sensing, air photo interpretation, surveying, field techniques, other tools to land use problems. Classification methods and cartographic representation. Field experience. Prerequisite: prior or concurrent courses in physical, economic and urban geography and remote sensing.

GEOG 542. WATER RESOURCE PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Hydrologic, engineering, economic, ecological and institutional aspects of water planning and management. Urban industrial water quality, flood plain management and river basin planning. Governmental and private water decision-making systems and processes.

GEOG 544. SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF ELEMENTS OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
Field measurement, variable selection, numerical taxonomy, computer mapping of physical land systems. Sampling techniques, variable ordination and coding, measurement procedures, data bank structure and retrieval, variable association, clustering and computer mapping of soils, topography, vegetation and micro climate. Prerequisite: GEOG 501 or consent of instructor.

GEOG 545. ADVANCED GIS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS
This course focuses on theoretical and applied issues in desktop Geographical Information Systems. The data acquisition, portrayal and analysis functions of GIS are explored through research topics. Desktop GIS and ARC/INFO UNIX are applied in a laboratory and project basis. Prerequisites: GEOG 261 and 502, consent of instructor. Limited to geography students.

GEOG 550. PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Systematic study of measuring data recorded on photographs; geometric relationship between physical objects and their images. Geometry of aerial photography, its relationship with terrain height, depression angle, flight height, other camera parameters. Emphasis on numerical solutions rather than instrument solutions. Relationship with modern remote sensing, traditional photo interpretation. Available to undergraduates by petition.

*GEOG 555. SEMINAR IN GIS RESEARCH
Emerging theories of GIS; GIS and the quantitative revolution; policy issues of GIS; increasing role of GIS in society; issues of mathematical examination of spatial analysis and GIS; advanced and new research areas; diffusion of GIS and component areas across world; GIS and educational training.

GEOG 566. ADVANCED STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR GEOGRAPHIC AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS II
Advanced variance analysis, covariance analysis, future analysis, survey sampling techniques.

GEOG 569. ADVANCED CARTOGRAPHY
Mapping and analyzing the statistical surface. Effect of class interval systems and interpolating schemes on choropleth and isopleth maps. Map perception. Automatic pattern recognition. Prerequisite: GEOG 261.

GEOG 573. SEMINAR IN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
Processes shaping physical environmental base for human use. Techniques of sampling and inventorying aspects of soils and climate. Students prepare climatic and soil maps both at micro and macro scales, perform mechanical analyses of soils, use both heat and water budgets quantitatively. Prerequisite: physical geography.

GEOG 574. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY SEMINAR
Intensive study of selected problems in economic geography.

GEOG 575. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Decision-making methods used by administrators of public agencies concerned with environmental issues. Public policy objectives and administration; alternative environmental management systems; implications of alternative methods of control; applied administrative methods for directing operations.

GEOG 576. ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
An analytical examination of selected environmental problems and issues. Fundamental aspects of planning including research design, analysis, and implementation of environmental policies are covered.

GEOG 581. SPECIAL TOPICS — GEOGRAPHY
Design and execution of a contemporary urban/environmental/policy research problem. Requires directed reading, discussion in seminar format and written analysis.

GEOG 591. SEMINAR IN TEACHING METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY 1-4 cr.
Philosophy of teaching, course preparation and presentation, source materials, tools, problems associated with college teaching. Graduate students only. One hour per week, one credit hour.

GEOG 595. RESEARCH AND COLLOQUIUM
Geography faculty provides topic(s); research team of faculty and students completes project and presents findings in Geography Colloquium Series. Examination and attempted solution of geographical problems that exist in Binghamton Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). Applied problems include monitoring of environmental systems, transportation planning and urban planning. Students apply geographical and planning theory and techniques obtained in other courses and work closely with faculty members. Community experts invited to participate where appropriate.

GEOG 597. INDEPENDENT STUDY var. cr.
Research under direction of faculty member. Consent of instructor and chairperson required.

GEOG 598. INTERNSHIP IN GEOGRAPHY — CARTOGRAPHY AND PLANNING
One formal meeting per week with instructor, plus eight hours of interning in an agency. Students undertake real-world problems approved by agency and faculty member. Evaluation on basis of project performance at agency, judged by agency sponsor and faculty. Consent of instructor required.

GEOG 599. THESIS RESEARCH 1-4 cr.

GEOG 700. CONTINUOUS REGISTRATION 1 cr./sem.
Required for maintenance of matriculated status in graduate program. No credit toward graduate degree requirements.

GEOG 707. RESEARCH SKILLS 1-4 cr.
Development of research skills required within graduate programs. May not be applied toward course credits for any graduate degree. Prerequisite: approval of relevant graduate program directors or department chairs.

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