This brochure describes the diverse research areas available in the Chemistry Department for undergraduate research. Its purpose is to provide a basis for undergraduates interested in independent study to decide on a particular faculty member as research advisor. Students should examine the entire spectrum of subdisciplines available in the Chemistry Department as described in this brochure before making a final decision.
Undergraduate chemical education in the United States, and at SUNY Binghamton in particular, is designed to provide a sound theoretical understanding of the principles of chemistry through lecture courses and the application of these principles through laboratory courses. By its very nature, however, traditional chemistry courses cannot give an undergraduate the experience of working in a research group, in which current research areas are investigated using modern and sophisticated techniques. Furthermore, hands-on experience in a research group is essential for a student to gain the actual working knowledge required in an industrial, governmental, or academic research environment. For these reasons, the Chemistry Department offers Chem 397 (Independent Study) and Chem 497 (Advanced Independent Study) to provide undergraduates with this kind of research experience. Students considering a career in chemistry or related fields should seriously consider enrolling in these courses. For Chemistry majors, four credits of Chem 397 and twelve credits total of independent research can count toward satisfying the elective requirements for the BA and BS degree.
Chemistry 397 (Independent Study) provides an introduction to basic research. The actual format of the study will depend on the particular faculty research advisor, but typically will include a search of the relevant literature, an introduction to the pertinent experimental and/or computational methods, original research on a particular topic, and participation in research group meetings. Students who contribute significantly to a research project are included as coauthors in publications arising from the research.
Those students previously enrolled in Chem 397 may want to continue research on a more advanced level and enroll in Chem 497 (Advanced Independent Study). Chem 497 requires more extensive preparation than Chem 397, including a written summary of the proposed research. Students may wish to continue further with their research project and enroll in Chem 498 (Advanced Independent Study - Honors) during their last semester at Binghamton University. Chem 498 is the highest level of research an undergraduate can do. It is the baccalaureate equivalent of doctoral research, and requires a written thesis and defense of the thesis before a faculty committee.
To apply for Chem 397, 497 or 498, undergraduates should follow these steps:
Dr. An received his B.S. in Chemistry (Honors thesis) and Cellular Molecular Biology from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1996). His Ph.D. in Chemistry focused on organic synthesis and mechanistic enzymology, received under the supervision of Prof. Paul A. Bartlett at the University of California, Berkeley (2003). He also did post¬doctoral research at the University of California, San Francisco, and he was Anna Fuller Fund Postdoctoral Fellow in Molecular Oncology with Prof. Donald M. Engelman at Yale University. He is joining SUNY-Binghamton University faculty in the fall of 2011.
My research interests are in the general areas of organic, bio-organic, biological, and pharmaceutical chemistry, as well as chemical biology. There are three programs (of equal weight).
Program 1. pHLIP: organic synthesis, bio-conjugate and peptide chemistry, biophysical characterization (model membrane systems, fluorescence, UV/vis, CD), and cell culture.
Courses. For students interested in organic synthesis: must have taken organic chemistry (231 and 332) and organic lab (335). Bioorganic Chemistry 434 will be very helpful but not required. For students interested in working with peptides, enzymes, proteins, membranes, and cell culture, additional courses in biochemistry and cell biology are required. Students should read the relevant publications before meeting with Professor.
Interest leads to motivation, which in turn leads to commitment of time. Thus, genuine interest is of highest priority. Students should commit to at least two semesters (in the same lab), and are expected to do > 15 h per week of lab work (in > 4 h time blocks).
Real scientific research is frustrating most of the time (and the reward is often no more than the work itself). Therefore, self-motivation, patience (i.e. a balance between passion about the work at large and a cool detachment from negative results), attention to detail, and an ability to think about what you are doing (the experimental task at hand) are all very necessary to make this a safe and enjoyable experience.
An, M.; Wijesinghe, D.; Andreev, O.; Reshetnyak, Y.; and Engelman, D. M.; “pHLIP Translocation of Membrane Impermeable Phalloidin Toxin Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010, 107, 20246-20250.
Thevenin, D.; An, M. and Engelman, D. M.; “pHLIP-Mediated Translocation of Membrane-Impermeable Molecules into Cells” Chemistry & Biology, 2009, 16, 754-762.
Yao L, Danniels J, Wijesinghe D, Andreev OA, Reshetnyak YK; “pHLIP-Mediated Delivery of PEGylated Liposomes to Cancer Cells” Journal of Controlled Release, 2013 (in press http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365913000758).
Yao L, Danniels J, Moshnikova A, Kuznetsov S, Ahmed A, Engelman DM, Reshetnyak YK, Andreev OA; “pHLIP Peptide Targets Nanogold Particles to Tumors” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013, Vol 110, Number 2, 465-470.
Reshetnyak YK, Yao L, Zheng SD, Kuznetsov S, Engelman DM, Andreev OA; “Measuring Tumor Aggressiveness and Targeting Metastatic Lesions with Fluorescent pHLIP” Molecular Imaging and Biology, 2011,Vol. 13, 1146-1156.
An, M.; Maitra U.; Neidlein, U. and Bartlett, P. A.; “5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase: Chemical Synthesis of the Tetrahedral Intermediate and Assignment of the Stereochemical Course of the Enzymatic Reaction” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12759-12767.
Dr. Bane received her B.S. in Chemistry from Davidson College (1980) and Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Vanderbilt University (1983). She did postdoctoral research in Bioorganic Chemistry at the University of Virginia, joining the SUNY Binghamton faculty in 1985.
My research interests are in Chemical Biology. Chemical Biology is a relatively new term used to describe the study of the chemistry that underlies all biological structure and processes. We use the principles, theories and tools that have been traditionally applied to small molecules and apply them to investigate biologically important systems. Consequently, we draw from diverse areas of chemistry and biology - ranging from computational chemistry to cell biology - to solve a biological problem.
The biological system that has been the core of our program is the microtubule. Microtubules occupy a central role in the life of a cell. Examine any cellular function that involves movement - division, directional migration, transport - and microtubules are likely to be found. Microtubules are the target for a number of clinically important drugs effective against a variety of disease states. For example, the Vinca alkaloids have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related neoplasms. Taxol, which is also an antimicrotubule drug, has been described as one of the most important new anticancer drugs of the past 20 years. Taxol quickly found its place in the chemical arsenal against cancer and is highly effective against some notoriously difficult tumors. Understanding the molecular interactions of these drugs with the microtubule receptor will spur the development of newer, more effective anticancer drugs.
Our studies require the use of protein biochemistry, synthetic organic chemistry, and spectroscopic (NMR, fluorescence, UV/vis and CD) techniques. An individual student's project will generally emphasize one of these areas, depending on the student's interest and the current needs of the program.
Courses: Introductory Chemistry (107 and 108 or 111), Chemistry 231, 332 and 335. For students with interest in the biological aspects of this work, a course in Biochemistry is recommended but not required.
Students interested in research in our lab should read the following reviews prior to meeting with Professor Bane:
Appropriate interests, motivation and responsible commitment of time are essential. Students interested in independent study should plan on spending at least two semesters in the research lab and expect to devote a minimum of 15 hours/week to research. In my lab, it is essential that a student have large blocks of time available between 9 am and 5 pm, as most experiments require at least 4 hours to perform.
A research lab is very different from a laboratory class. It is rare for an experiment to work the first time (or the second time or even the third time). The research student must be prepared and willing to engage in a great deal of troubleshooting!
“Site-Specific Orthogonal Labeling of the Carboxy Terminus of α-Tubulin.” Banerjee, Abhijit; Panosian, Timothy D.; Mukherjee, Kamalika; Ravindra, Rudravajhala; Gal, Susannah; Sackett, Dan L.; Bane, Susan (2010) ACS Chemical Biology, 5, 777-785.
“Characterization of the Colchicine Binding Site on Avian Tubulin Isotype βVI.” Shubhada Sharma, Barbara Poliks, Colby Chiauzzi,Rudravajhala Ravindra, Adam R. Blanden and Susan Bane (2010) Biochemistry 41, 14010-14018.
“Synthesis, spectroscopicproperties and protein labeling of water soluble 3,5- disubstituted boron dipyrromethenes.” Dilek, Ozlem; Bane, Susan L (2009) Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 19, 6911-6913.
“Synthesis of boron dipyrromethene fluorescent probes for bioorthogonal labeling.” Dilek, Ozlem: Bane, Susan L (2008) Tetrahedron Letters, 49, 1413-1416.
"Design, synthesis, and bioactivity of simplified paclitaxel analogs based on the T- Taxol bioactive conformation." Thota Ganesh, A. Norris, Susan Bane, A. A. Alcaraz, James P. Snyder, and David G. I. Kingston (2006)Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 14, 3447- 3454.
"The Taxol pharmacophore and the T-Taxol bridging principle." D. G. I. Kingston, S. Bane and J. P. Snyder (2005). Cell Cycle, 4, 279-289.
“The Bioactive Taxol Conformation on -Tubulin: Experimental Evidence from Highly Active Constrained Analogs.” Thota Ganesh, Rebecca C. Guza, Susan Bane, Rudravajhala Ravindra, Natasha Shanker, Ami S. Lakdawala, James P. Snyder, and David G. I. Kingston (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, 101, 10,006-10,011.
“A Fluorescence-Based High Throughput Assay for Antimicrotubule Drugs.” Barron, D. M., Chatterjee, S. K., Ravindra, R., Roof, R., Baloglu, E., Kingston, D. G.I. and Bane, S. (2003) Anal. Biochem. 315, 49-56.
“Interaction of Tubulin with a New Fluorescent Analogue of Vinblastine.” Chatterjee, S. K., Laffray, J., Patel, P., Ravindra, R., Qin, Y., Kuehne, M. E. and Bane S. L. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 14010-14018.
“Synthesis and Antimicrotubule Activity of Combretatropone Derivatives.” Janik, M. E. and Bane, S. L. (2002) Bioorg. Med. Chem. 10, 1895-1903.
Dr. Callahan received his B.S. magna cum laude from SUNY Cortland (1996) and his PhD in Biochemistry and Biophysics from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (2005). His postdoctoral research (2006-2012) was carried out at the Wadsworth Center and at the University at Albany, funded in part by an NIH fellowship in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Disease. He joins the Chemistry Department at Binghamton University in the Fall of 2012.
Synopsis: We investigate the chemical biology of protein biogenesis and protein degradation, two essential events in the expression of genetic information.
Protein Biogenesis: A number of disease-related genes encode precursor polypeptides that require specific chemical processing to yield biologically active proteins. We investigate the chemical biology of this event, called protein biogenesis. Of particular interest is the autocatalytic biogenesis of proteins by HINT domains. These ~25 kDa sequences activate hedgehog and intein-containing precursors through an intricate self-splicing reaction. HINT domains are conserved in evolution and have been implicated in a wide-range of important human diseases, including tuberculosis, birth defects, and cancer. The absence of solution assays to monitor HINT activity together with a paucity of high-resolution structural data on eukaryotic HINT domains have presented major roadblocks to detailed studies in this area. We aim to address these gaps and thereby pursue our research objectives, which include:
Protein Degradation: An additional area of research centers on the design of genetically encoded biosensors. We are particularly interested in designing biosensors to detect the action of proteolytic enzymes, or proteases. Recently we engineered green fluorescent protein (GFP) to function as the first fluorogenic biosensor of protease activity. We are now developing a variegated family of protease biosensors from spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins to facilitate assay multiplexing. A related project seeks to exploit our GFP biosensor to define the substrate specificity of novel proteases as well as to "breed" proteases that cleave at user-defined sequences. Future studies in this area will involve adapting the technology for use in cultured mammalian cells and in animals, with the goal of visualizing protease-initiated cell signaling pathways, such as apoptosis.
Student-driven research projects in these areas may involve enzyme kinetics, site-directed mutagenesis, small-molecule chemistry, bioseperations, and multiple types of spectroscopy. Highly motivated students willing to dedicate 12-15 hrs per week of laboratory time are encouraged to apply.
Required course work: Students will have completed Organic chemistry I and Organic lab. Courses in Biochemistry and Bioorganic Chemistry are also recommended
Callahan B.P.; Topilina, N., Stanger M.; Van Roey; P., Belfort M. Structure of a catalytically competent intein caught in a redox trap with functional and biological implications. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2011b) 18, 630-3.
Zhang L, Zheng, Y, Callahan B., Belfort M., Liu, Y. Cisplatin as a protein splicing inhibitor suggesting inteins as therapeutic targets in mycobacteria J. Biol. Chem. (2011a) 286, 1277-82 (Highlighted in Nature Chemical Biology)
Callahan B.P., Stanger M., Belfort M. Protease activation of split green fluorescent protein ChemBioChem (2010b) 11, 2259-63.
Callahan B., Nguyen K., Gormley A., Valdes K., Caplow M., Crossman D.K., Steyn A.J.C., Eisele L., Derbyshire K. Conservation of structure and protein-protein interactions mediated by the secreted mycobacterial proteins EsxA, EsxB, and EspA. J. Bacteriology. (2010a) 192, 326-35.
Amitai G., Callahan B.P., Stanger M., Belfort G., Belfort M. Modulation of intein activity by its neighboring extein substrates.. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2009) 106, 11005-10.
Callahan B.P., Miller B.G. OMP decarboxylase—An enigma persists. Bioorg. Chem. (2007) 35, 465-9.
Callahan B.P., Lomino, J.V., Wolfenden R. Nanomolar inhibition of the enterobactin biosynthesis enzyme, EntE: Synthesis, substituent effects, and additivity. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2006) 16, 3802-05.
Callahan B.P., Yaun, Y., Wolfenden, R. The Burden Borne by Urease J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) 127, 10828-9. (Highlighted in Science)
Callahan B.P., Wolfenden, R. OMP Decarboxylase: an Experimental Test of Ground State Destabilization of the Enzyme-Substrate Complex J. Am. Chem. Soc (2004) 126, 14698-9. (Highlighted in Faculty of 1000)
Dr. Nikolay Dimitrov received his PhD degree in chemistry from Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, BULGARIA in 1993. He did his postdoctoral research in electrochemistry and corrosion of materials at Arizona State University (1996-1999). Next he was appointed as a research assistant professor at Arizona State University for the period 2000-2003. He joined the chemistry faculty at SUNY Binghamton in the fall of 2003.
Surface defects corresponding to adatoms, vacancies, and steps together with misfit dislocations are known to interact with one another affecting and often dominating kinetic processes. This research examines various issues related to the role of defect interactions in determining thin-film growth modes. Most recently, a long-term research activity was established aimed at realizing multistep galvanic displacement processes for the growth of epitaxial metal films and successive layered assemblies of different metals and/or alloys. A proof-of-concept study, marked the beginning of the development of a new thin film growth method realizing as an elementary step monolayer limited, galvanic displacement. While displacement reactions have been used recently for sub-monolayer to a monolayer surface modification, the new outcome that warrants the innovative aspect of our study is associated with the application of this strategy for metal thin film deposition. This method, called Surface Limited Redox Replacement (SLRR) is now applied for growth of thin metal films of Ag, Cu and Pt by at least four research groups nationwide.
Dealloying is a solid-state separation process in which a selective dissolution serves for removal of the most electrochemically active constituent. This process results in the formation of a nanoporous sponge composed almost entirely of the more-noble alloy constituents. In a newly proposed research, chemical and electrochemical selective dealloying along with potential controlled cementation are employed to design a variety of porous structures at nanometer length scales. An ongoing collaboration with the University of South Australia is aimed at hydrophobzing the as processed porous substrates that owing to the periodical surface roughness will render them suprhydrophobic (lotus leaf effect). Exploration of avenues for polymer imprinting of the generated suface morphologies is also intended as a part of this research.
The unerpotential deposition in the systems Cu2+/AgxAu(1-x) (111), Ag+/CuxAu(1-x) (111) and Pb2+/Cu-Alpoly was investigated as a function of the alloy composition. A linear dependence of the upd coverage on the composition was found in the case of ideal separation of the alloying constituents. A power law function was found to describe the upd as a function of the alloy composition in the case of a randomly mixed alloy. These findings were successfully applied as an analytical tool for determining the alloy composition of the investigated substrates. Most recently, an ongoing research realizes simultaneously taking place nitrate electroreduction and metal UPD on Cu substrates for the development of an accurate and high-sensitivity technique for analysis and monitoring of metal content in natural waters. A quantitative study and modeling work shed light on such scenario taking place on Cu(111) electrode at open circuit potential.
Interested students must be highly motivated and able to devote at least 12-15 hours/week to the research. An experiment in our Lab would require at least four hours of uninterrupted time. Also, prospective students should have very good to excellent performance in the laboratory activities associated with the core chemistry courses.
L. Yin, F. Wafula, N. Dimitrov, and P. Borgesen, Toward a Better Understanding of the Effect of Cu Electroplating Process Parameters on Cu3Sn Voiding, Journal of Electronic Materials, 2012, 41, 1898
D. A. McCurry, M.Kamundi, M. Fayette, F. Wafula, N. Dimitrov, All Electrochemical Fabrication of a Platinized Nanoporous Au Thin-Film Catalyst, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2011, 3, 4459.
M. Fayette, Y. Liu, D. Bertrand, J. Nutariya, N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, From Au to Pt via Surface Limited Redox Replacement of Pb UPD in One-Cell Configuration, Langmuir, 2011, 27(9), 5650.
F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, Effect of the deposition parameters on the voiding propensity of solder joints with Cu electroplated in a Hull cell, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 2011, 41, 469.
Y. Liu, S. Bliznakov and N. Dimitrov, Factors Controlling the Less Noble Metal Retention in Nanoporous Structures Processed by Electrochemical Dealloying, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2010, 157 (8), K168.
F. Wafula, Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Borgesen, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, Impact of Key Deposition Parameters on the Voiding, Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Copper, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2010, 157(2), 111.
Y. Liu, L. Yin, S. Bliznakov, P. Kondos, P. Borgesen, D.W. Henderson, C. Parks, J. Wang, E.J. Cotts, and N. Dimitrov, Improving Copper Electrodeposition in the Microelectronics Industry, IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies , 2010, 33(1) 127.
Dan Xu, S. Bliznakov, Zhaoping Liu, Jiye Fang, and N. Dimitrov, Composition-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Cu Nanocube Catalysts towards Formic Acid Oxidation, Angewandte Chemie, 2010, 49, 1
Y. Liu, S. Bliznakov and N. Dimitrov, Comprehensive Study of the Application of a Pb Underpotential Deposition-Assisted Method for Surface Area Measurement of Metallic Nanoporous Materials, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2009, 113 (28), 12362.
S. Bliznakov, Y. Liu, and N. Dimitrov, J. Garnica, and R. Sedev, Double-Scale Roughness and Superhydrophobicity on Metalized Toray Carbon Fiber Paper, Langmuir, 2009, 25(8), 4760.
T. Spassov, L. Lyubenova, Y. Liu, S. Bliznakov, M. Spassova, and N. Dimitrov, Mechanochemical Synthesis, Thermal Stability and Selective Electrochemical Dissolution of Cu–Ag Solid Solutions, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2009, 478, 232.
L.T. Viyannalage, S. Bliznakov, and N. Dimitrov, Electrochemical Method for Quantitative Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead, Analytical Chemistry A, 2008, 80, 2042.
S. Bliznakov, E. Lefterova, N. Dimitrov, K. Petrov, and A. Popov, A study of the Al content impact on the properties of MmNi4.4-xCo0.6Alx alloys as precursors for negative electrodes in NiMH batteries, Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 176, 381
N. Vasiljevic, L.T. Viyannalage, N. Dimitrov, and K. Sieradzki High resolution electrochemical STM: New structural results for underpotentially deposited Cu on Au(111) in acid sulfate solution, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2008, 613, 118
N. Dimitrov, R. Vasilic, N. Vasiljevic, A kinetic model for redox replacement of UPD layers, Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, 2007, 10(7), D79
L.T. Viyannalage, R.Vasilic, and N. Dimitrov, Epitaxial Growth of Cu on Ag(111) and Au (111) by Surface Limited Redox Replacement - An Electrochemical and STM Study, Journal of Physical Chemistry, 2007, 111, 4036.
N. Vasiljevic, L.T. Viyannalage, N. Dimitrov, N.A. Missert, and R.G. Copeland, Oxidation of The Cu(100) Surface Induced by Local Alkalization, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2007, 154, 202.
R.Vasilic, L.T. Viyannalage, and N. Dimitrov, Epitaxial Growth of Ag on Au(111) by Galvanic Displacement of Pb and Tl Monolayers, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2006, 153(9), C648.
N. Vasiljevic, N. Dimitrov, K. Sieradzki, Pattern Organization on Cu(111) in Perchlorate Solutions, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2006, 595, 60.
R.Vasilic, N. Vasiljevic and N. Dimitrov, Open Circuit Potential Stability of Pb UPD layer on Cu(111) Face, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2005, 580(2), 203
James Dix, born and raised in Moline, Illinois, obtained a B.A. in chemistry from Grinnell College in 1971, and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from UCLA in 1977. At UCLA he studied applications of magnetic resonance to membrane permeability. Dr. Dix joined the Biophysical Laboratory of Harvard Medical School in 1977 to continue research in membrane permeability and joined the Binghamton chemistry faculty in 1981. He spent the 1988-1989 academic year as a Visiting Associate Research Biophysicist of the Cardiovascular Research Institute of UCSF. He also was a Visiting Scientist, Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995-1996, and a Fulbright Teacher/Scholar at the University of Nairobi, Kenya, 2009-2010.
My research goal is to obtain a molecular description of the dynamical aspects of biophysical systems. Most recently, I have used computational chemistry to explore how molecules move in crowded biological environments, and to develop structure-activity relationships for inhibitor binding to transport proteins. I have also explored how computers and the Internet can be used to teach and learn chemistry.
Chemical reactions that occur in biological cells typically require that reactants diffuse together. In vitro, the diffusive motion is often described by Brownian motion. In vivo, however, the motion may not be Brownian because the intracellular milieu is crowded with organelles and proteins. We explore the effect of crowding on diffusive motion by creating a trajectory of a collection of molecules using a molecular dynamics program, then calculating the distance the molecules have moved as a function of time. According to Einstein, the average of the square of this distance (the mean squared distance) is proportional to time if the motion is Brownian; nonlinear concave downward plots indicate non-Brownian motion. Our results and a review of the literature indicate that except when there is a specific interaction between a diffusing solute and a crowding molecule, the motion is Brownian (James A. Dix and A.S. Verkman, “Crowding Effects on Diffusion in Solutions and Cells,” Ann. Rev. Biophysics 37, 247263, 2008). Our method can also be used to analyze experimental data using models that are difficult to develop analytic equations from (James A. Dix, Erik F. Y. Hom, and A. S. Verkman, “Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Simulations of Photophysical Phenomena and Molecular Interactions: A Molecular Dynamics/Monte Carlo Approach,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 18961906, 2006; Mazin Magzoub, Prashant Padmawar, James A. Dix, and A. S. Verkman, “Millisecond Association Kinetics of K+ with Triazacryptand-Based K+ Indicators Measured by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 2121621221, 2006.)
If one looks at a collection of molecules that have some biological effect, one finds that some molecules are more active than others in eliciting the biological effect. We are investigating the structural and chemical determinants of molecular biological activity. Typically, the structure and electrostatic distribution of the molecules are estimated by solving the Schrödinger equation with standard computer programs. A visual inspection of the results sometimes reveals key shifts in electron distribution that are correlated with biological activity. Additional insight can be gained by performing conformational field analysis (CoMFA) giving a three-dimensional picture of areas where steric and electrostatic changes lead to increased biological activity. These methods were applied to a series of 4, 4?-substituted disulfonic stilbenes that inhibit anion transport through the anion transport protein AE1. Our results indicate that electronic shifts to the ends of the molecules govern inhibitory potency.
The goal of this research project is to determine to what extent electronic methods can be used to teach and learn undergraduate chemistry. We focused initially on developing an electronic curriculum for introductory chemistry using the World Wide Web (James A. Dix, Robert A. Allendoerfer, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Roy A. Lacey and Bernard J. Laurenzi, “An Electronic Curriculum for Introductory Chemistry,” J. Instructional Technology 24, 151-157, 1995). In collaboration with Wayne Jones at Binghamton, we have developed a curriculum prototype (Wayne E. Jones, Jr., James A. Dix and Robert D. Allendoerfer, “Teaching chemistry on the World Wide Web: An interactive Internet learning environment for introductory chemistry,” ACS symposium, New Orleans, March 24-25, 1996) that was used at SUNY Binghamton and SUNY Buffalo in the Fall semester, 1996. We also have created a CD-ROM that was ancillary to Ebbing and Gammon's General Chemistry textbook.
Dr. Fang earned his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Chemistry from Lanzhou University (China) in 1984 and 1989, respectively. He then received his M.Sc. (Chemistry) and Ph.D. (Materials Science) degrees from the National University of Singapore (Republic of Singapore). He did postdoctoral research in Nanomaterials and Advanced Thermoelectric Materials at the University of New Orleans. Before joining the SUNY Binghamton in 2006, he has served as Chemistry faculty at the University of New Orleans for 4 years. Dr. Fang is a NSF CAREER winner in 2005.
Materials Chemistry is an exciting, interesting intersection of modern materials science and chemistry with unlimited career opportunities. Dr. Fang’s interdisciplinary research is focused on synthesis and manipulation of nanoscaled functional materials via a wet-chemical pathway, as well as understanding of the relevant physical and chemical phenomena on these size- and shape-controlled low-dimensional materials. The emphases are (1) to produce high-quality nanocrystals (size- and shape-control) and to challenge advanced processing technology; (2) to study superstructure of self-assembly systems containing nanopolyhedra (this work was recently highlighted in Angew. Chem. article); (3) to investigate novel performance of monodisperse nanocrystals and their growth mechanism; (4) and to explore novel applications in emerging fields such as energy, fuel cell catalysts, bio-imaging and thermoelectric materials.
His synthetic strategy is based on a high-temperature organic solution approach, in which various chemical reactions are designed using organometallic precursors and carried out in an organic solvent at high reaction temperature in the presence of appropriate capping ligand and stabilizing agent. In other words, developed techniques that used to use in Organic Synthesis (e.g. air-/moisture-sensitive operation) are adopted to produce inorganic nanocrystals with well-defined high-quality (size-, shape-, phase- and composition-control). Knowledge from Coordination Chemistry, Organometallic Chemistry, Crystallography and Colloidal Processing may add an advantage to this study. Training of characterization skills such as phase/nanostructural (e.g. XRD, TEM, SEM, AFM), optical (e.g. UV-Vis, FTIR, NIR, PL), magnetic (e.g. SQUID, VSM, EPR), thermal (e.g. TGA, DTA), high-pressure and thermoelectric investigations will be involved.
Presently, the on-going research projects include (1) self-assembly of functional nanocrystals and structural study of superlattice (2D and 3D); (2) synthesis of shape- controlled nanocrystals for new generation of fuel cell catalyst applications; (3) development of enhanced thermoelectric materials and study of their applications; (4) preparation of high-quality semiconductor quantum dots and solar cell investigation; and (5) wet-chemical fabrication of core-shell nanoparticles and bio-functional nanoparticles, and exploration of biological/medicine applications. His research is supported by NSF, DOE and private companies. For more information, please refer to http://chemiris.chem.binghamton.edu/FANG/< /a>.
"High-Indexed Noble Metal Nanocrystals", Zewei Quan, Yuxuan Wang, and Jiye Fang*, Acc. Chem. Res, 46(2) 191-202, (2013).
"Tilted Face-Centered-Cubic Superscrystals of PbS Nanocubes", Zewei Quan, Welley Siu Loc, Cuikun Lin, Zhiping Luo, Kaikun Yang, Yuxuan Wang, Howard Wang, Zhongwu Wang* and Jiye Fang*, Nano Lett. 12 (8) 4409-4413, (2012).
"Reversible Kirkwood-Alder Transition Observed in Pt3Cu2 Nanoctahedron Assemblies under Controlled Solvent Annealing/Drying Conditions", Jun Zhang, Zhiping Luo, Benjamin Martens, Zewei Quan, Amar Kumbhar, Nathan Porter, Yuxuan Wang, Detlef-M. Smilgies* and Jiye Fang*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134 (34) 14043-14049, (2012).
“Selective Epitaxial Growth of Silver Nanoplates”, Yuxuan Wang and Jiye Fang*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50 (5) 992-993, (2011).
“Composition-Dependent Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Cu Nanocube Catalysts towards Formic Acid Oxidation”, Dan Xu, Stoyan Bliznakov, Zhaoping Liu, Jiye Fang* and Nikolay Dimitrov*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49 (7) 1282-1285, (2010).
“Synthesis and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Shape-Controlled Pt3Ni Nanopolyhedra”, Jun Zhang, Hongzhou Yang, Jiye Fang* and Shouzhong Zou*, Nano Lett. 10 (2) 638-644, (2010).
“Assembling Non-Spherical 2D Binary Nanoparticle Superlattices by Opposite Electrical Charges: The Role of Coulomb Forces”, Zhaoyong Sun, Zhiping Luo* and Jiye Fang*, ACS NANO 4(4) 1821-1828, (2010).
“Enhancing by Weakening: Electrooxidation of Methanol on Pt3Co and Pt Nanocubes”, Hongzhou Yang, Jun Zhang, Kai Sun, Shouzhong Zou* and Jiye Fang*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49 (x) xxxx-xxxx, (2010).
“Solution-Based Evolution and Enhanced Methanol Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse Pt-Cu Nanocubes”, Dan Xu, Zhaoping Liu, Hongzhou Yang, Qingsheng Liu, Jun Zhang, Jiye Fang*, Shouzhong Zou* and Kai Sun, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48 (23) 4217-4221, (2009).
“A General Strategy for Preparation of Pt-3d-transition Metal (Co, Fe, Ni) Nanocubes”, Jun Zhang and Jiye Fang*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131 (51) 18543-18547, (2009).
“Co-reduction Colloidal Synthesis of III-V Nanocrystals: The Case of InP”, Zhaoping Liu, Amar Kumbhar, Dan Xu, Jun Zhang, Zhaoyong Sun and Jiye Fang*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47 (19) 3540-3542 (2008).
“p-Type Field-Effect Transistors of Single-Crystal ZnTe Nanobelts”, Jun Zhang, Po-Chiang Chen, Guozhen Shen, Jibao He, Amar Kumbhar, Chongwu Zhou and Jiye Fang*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47(49) 9469-9471, (2008).
“Simple Cubic Super Crystals Containing PbTe Nanocubes and Their Core-Shell Building Blocks”, Jun Zhang, Amar Kumbhar, Jibao He, Narayan Chandra Das, Kaikun Yang, Jian-Qing Wang, Howard Wang, Kevin L. Stokes and Jiye Fang*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 (45) 15203-15209, (2008).
“Super-Crystal Structures of Octahedral c-In2O3 Nanocrystals”, Weigang Lu, Qingsheng Liu, Zhaoyong Sun, Jibao He, Chidi Ezeolu and Jiye Fang*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130 (22) 6983 -6991, (2008).
“Single Crystalline Magnetite Nanotubes”, Zuqin Liu, Daihua Zhang, Song Han, Chao Li, Bo Lei, Weigang Lu, Jiye Fang and Chongwu Zhou*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 6-7 (2005).
“Study of Quasi-Monodisperse In2O3 Nanocrystals: Synthesis and Optical Determination”, Qingsheng Liu, Weigang Lu, Aihui Ma, Jingke Tang, Jin Lin and Jiye Fang*, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(15), 5276-5277 (2005).
“Bismuth Telluride Hexagonal Nanoplatelets and Their Two-Step Epitaxial Growth”, Weigang Lu, Yong Ding, Yuxi Chen, Zhong Lin Wang and Jiye Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(28), 10112 - 10116 (2005).
“Shape-Evolution and Self-Assembly of Monodisperse PbTe Nanocrystals”, Weigang Lu, Jiye Fang*, Kevin L. Stokes and Jun Lin, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126 (38), 11798 - 11799 (2004).
“Perfect Orientation Ordered in-situ One-Dimensional-Self-Assembly of Mn-doped PbSe Nanocrystals”, Weigang Lu, Puxian Gao, Wen Bin Jian, Zhong Lin Wang and Jiye Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(45), 14816-14821 (2004).
“The First Synthesis of Pb1-xMnxSe Nanocrystals”, Tianhao Ji, Wen-Bin Jian and Jiye Fang, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125(28), 8448-8449 (2003).
Dr. Grewer received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Frankfurt, Germany, in 1993. He subsequently was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Cornell University and a Senior Research Associate at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysics in Frankfurt, Germany. He is joining the BU faculty in 2008 after a 4-year appointment as Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Miami School of Medicine.
My laboratory focuses on research in the field of Biophysical Chemistry, at the interface between the chemical, biological, and physical sciences. We are interested in elucidating the physical principles underlying the movement of ions and small, organic molecules across biological membranes. In living cells, specific membrane proteins, such as ion channels and transport proteins, catalyze transmembrane movement of ions and organic molecules. We are specifically interested in transporters that “pump” substrates uphill against a transmembrane concentration and/or electrical gradient, by coupling this movement to an energy source. Proteins performing such tasks are called active transporters.
Transporters studied in the lab: Our current research focuses mainly on secondary-active Na+-coupled transporters, which are energized by coupling of substrate transport to the cotransport of Na+ ions down their electrochemical potential gradient across the membrane. Neurotransmitter transporters and amino acid transporters belong to this class of transport proteins. The systems investigated are: Glutamate transporters, - aminobutyric acid transporters, dopamine transporters, and neutral amino acid transporters (system ASC, system A, system N). Most of these transport systems are highly relevant for physiological processes, including chemical signal transmission in the brain, and they may be targets for future drug development.
Techniques: In many cases, transmembrane transport is associated with stationary or transient transport of charge. We measure this charge transport with electrophysiological techniques, such as current recording from transporter-expressing, voltage-clamped cells or patches excised from the cell membrane. In order to investigate transient charge transport, we perturb a pre-existing transporter steady state by applying voltage or rapid substrate concentration jumps and subsequently measuring the kinetics of the relaxation to a new steady state with a sub-millisecond time resolution. In addition to investigating the transport mechanism of wild-type transporters, rapid kinetic studies are extended to transporters that are fused to fluorescent proteins or site-specifically mutated. The combination of these techniques allows us to understand the relationship between the structure and the function of the transport proteins. The experimental techniques are supplemented with kinetic modeling to simulate transporter function and predict transporter behavior in their physiological environment.
In an additional project, we are interested in developing methods to investigate transmembrane flux of transported molecules, by using fluorescent microscopy, with the aim of performing flux measurements in single cells. To this extent, we are synthesizing fluorescent markers to be used for bio-orthogonal labeling of the transported molecules.
Development of pharmacological tools: One of our projects aims at discovering new pharmacological tools for the investigation of neutral amino acid transporters in vitro and in vivo. We are using computational approaches, such as in-silico ligand docking and Molecular Dynamics simulations to identify modes and mechanisms of ligand interaction with their transporter binding site(s). Promising ligands generated through the computational methods are then synthesized by using the methods of classical synthetic organic chemistry, and functionally tested with respect to their action on the transport proteins. We also perform structure-activity relationship studies to predict ligand behavior without knowledge of the transporter binding site.
Grewer C, Zhang Z, Mwaura J, Albers T, Schwartz A, Gameiro A. Charge Compensation Mechanism of a Na+-coupled, Secondary Active Glutamate Transporter. J Biol Chem. (2012) 287; 26921-31.
Albers T, Marsiglia W, Thomas T, Gameiro A, Grewer C. Defining substrate and blocker activity of alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2 (ASCT2) Ligands with Novel Serine Analogs. Mol Pharmacol. (2012) 81; 356-65.
Gameiro, A., Braams, S., Rauen, T., and Grewer, C. The Discovery of Slowness1 : Low capacity transport and slow anion channel gating by the glutamate transporter EAAT5, Biophys. J. (2011) in press.
Nothmann, D., Leinenweber, A., Torres-Salazar, D., Kovermann, P., Hotzy, J, Gameiro, A., Grewer, C., and Fahlke, C. Hetero-oligomerization of neuronal glutamate transporters, J. Biol. Chem. (2011) 286; 3935-3943.
Zhang, Z., Zander, C. B. and Grewer, C. The C-terminal domain of the neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2 regulates transport activity through voltage-dependent processes, Biochem. J. (2011) 434; 287-296.
Tao, Z., Rosental, N., Kanner, B. I., Gameiro, A., Mwaura, J., Grewer, C. Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue T101. J. Biol. Chem. (2010) 285; 17725-17733.
Zhang Z, Albers T, Fiumer H, Gameiro A, Grewer C. A conserved Na+ binding site of the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2). J. Biol. Chem., (2009) in press.
Tao Z, Gameiro A, Grewer C. Thallium ions can replace both sodium and potassium ions in the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid carrier 1. Biochemistry. (2008) 47, 12923- 30.
Grewer C, Gameiro A, Zhang Z, Tao Z, Braams S, Rauen T. Glutamate forward and reverse transport: from molecular mechanism to transporter-mediated release after ischemia. IUBMB Life. (2008) 60, 609-19.
Zhang Z, Gameiro A, Grewer C. Highly conserved asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2. J Biol Chem. (2008) 283,12284-92.
Erreger K, Grewer C, Javitch JA, Galli A. Currents in response to rapid concentration jumps of amphetamine uncover novel aspects of human dopamine transporter function. J Neurosci. (2008) 28, 976-89.
Zhang, Z., Tao, Z., Gameiro, A., Barcelona, S., Braams, S., Rauen, T., and Grewer, C., The transport direction determines the kinetics of substrate transport by the glutamate transporter EAAC1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2007) 104, 18025-30.
1Title adapted from: Nadolny, S., The Discovery of Slowness, 1997, Penguin
Dr. Jones received a B.S. (Honors) degree from St. Michael's College in Vermont in 1987. He received his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry in 1991 under the supervision of Professor Thomas J. Meyer at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. After 18 months of post-doctoral work with Professor Marye Anne Fox at the University of Texas, he declined an NIH post-doctoral fellowship to join the faculty at Binghamton in the fall of 1993. He completed a sabbatical year as a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 2000 with Nobel Prize Winner Alan MacDiarmid.
Dr. Jones's research interests involve the study of photo-induced electron and energy transfer in inorganic complexes, materials and polymers. By combining novel synthetic strategies with modern spectroscopic and characterization techniques, we gain a better understanding of fundamental processes which occur in all of chemistry including electron transfer, energy transfer, excited state reactivity, and materials design at a molecular level. The focus of our efforts is the design and study of molecular wires and devices. These nanomaterials provide a foundation for both fundamental investigations as well as opportunities for new applied technologies including sensors and electronics packaging. The projects briefly outlined below have been supported by grants from NIH, NSF, SRC, NIST, ONR, New York State Center for Advanced Technology (IEEC), and industrial partners. Undergraduate students work on each of these projects and are welcome to discuss research opportunities anytime after they have taken general chemistry.
One area of recent interest involves the preparation of conjugated polymer systems for long range electron and energy transfer. The application of electronic polymers to specific devices is currently being explored. We have prepared a series of fluorescent conjugated polymer chemosensors. This project has demonstrated the application of molecular wires for the detection of nanomolar quantities of transition metals in solution. Current efforts, supported by the National Institute of Health, are preparing new more reversible and water sensitive versions of this exciting new class of materials. Of particular interest is the non-linear quenching response in these polymers which make them significantly more sensitive than monomeric sensors. We have developed a unique mathematical model for this energy transfer process which, for the first time, allows distinction between Dexter and Forster energy transfer mechanisms.
The design of molecular wires continues to be a fascinating target of chemistry, physics, and materials science. We have been applying a non-mechanical electrostatic polymer processing procedure to prepare nanofibrous materials with diameters of < 100 nm. The exploration of conducting polymers, blends, and in-situ deposition coating procedures provides for a range of new chemical and physical phenomena to be explored including nanoscale effects on conductivity, chemosensor behavior, and surface chemistry. Recently, this work has resulted in the development of a template based approach to the chemical preparation of tubular materials where the inner diameter of the tube is ~ 500 nm and the wall of the tube is ~ 50 nm. Chemical approaches to prepare metallic and conducting polymer tubes have been developed. These nanomaterials demonstrate enhanced electrical and thermal behavior and have recently been incorporated into polymer composites as next generation thermal interface materials for electronic devices.
The third area of focus in the Jones group is in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. Photovoltaic materials can be prepared on flexible substrates to create low-cost solar cells suitable for roll-to-roll manufacturing. Working closely with colleagues in engineering, we have developed new hybrid solar cells and continue to work on improving the efficiency of the materials and processes involved.
“Energy Transfer and Electronic Energy Migration Processes”, Li-Juan Fan, Wayne E. Jones, Jr. in Handbook of Photochemistry and Photophysics of Polymeric Materials, N.S. Allen, Editor, Wiley, May 2010, ISBN 978-0470-13796-3.
“Synthesis, Characterization, and Spectroscopic Study of a Riboflavin-Molybdenum Complex.” Catherine N. Malele, Jayanta Ray, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Polyhedron, 2010, 29, 749 -756.
“Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications” Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Jasper Chiguma, Ashok Pachamutha, Daryl Santos, Materials, 2010, 3(2), 1478 -1496.
"Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Self-Assembled Clays Nanocomposites for Roll to Roll Fabrication in Photovoltaics” Peter N. Kariuki, Jessica Gendron, Christopher M Madhl1, Jasper Chiguma, Michael. E. Hagerman, Peter Borgesen, and Wayne. E. Jones, Jr., Mat. Res. Soc. Proc., 2010, in Press.
“Competition between Energy Transfer Quenching and Chelation Enhanced Fluorescence in a Cu(II) Coordinated Conjugated Polymer System.” Lijuan Fan, Justin J. Martin, Wayne E. Jones Jr., J. Fluorescence, 2009, 19, 555-559.
“Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Molecular Wire Chemosensors for Transition Metal Ion Recognition and Signaling.” Li-Juan Fan, Yan Zhang, Clifford B. Murphy, Sarah E. Angell, Matthew F.L. Parker, Brendan R. Flynn, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Coord. Chem. Reviews, 2009, 253(3-4), 410-422.
“Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanotubes from Electrospun Fiber Templates.” Frederick Ochanda, Dickson Andala, Kevin Cho, Thomas Keane, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Langmuir, 2009, 25(13), 7547-7552.
“New Synthesized Structure of Trans-dichlorbis (1,3-diaminopropane)2 Ruthenium (III) Chloride.” Peter N. Kariuki, Shailesh Upreti, Christopher M. Madl, and Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Acta Cryst. C, 2009 submitted.
“Spectroscopic and ab initio Study of an Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) Rhodanine Derivative.” Jayanta Ray, Nabamita Panja, Prasanta K. Nandi, Justin J. Martin, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., J. Molecular Structure, 2008, 874, 121-127.
“Fabrication and Thermal analysis for submicron Silver tubes prepared by Electrospun Fiber Templates.” Frederick Ochanda, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Langmuir, 2007, 23 (2): 795- 801.
“Enhanced Conductivity of Thin Film Polyaniline by Self-Assembled Transition Metal Complexes,” David Sarno, Justin Martin, Steve Hira, Clifford Timpson, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Langmuir, 2007, Langmuir, 23 (2), 879-884.
“A Numerical Study of Transport in a Thermal Interface Material Enhanced with Carbon Nanotubes,” Anand Desai, Satesh Mahajan, Ganesh Subbarayan, Wayne E. Jones Jr., James Geer, Bahgat Sammakia, J. Electronics Packaging, 2006, 128(1), 92-97.
“Fabrication and Thermal analysis for submicron Silver tubes prepared by Electrospun Fiber Templates.” Frederick Ochanda, Wayne E. Jones, Jr., Langmuir, 2007, LANGMUIR 23 (2): 795-801.
Dr. Lees received his B.Sc. (Honors) and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He did postdoctoral research with Professor Arthur Adamson at the University of Southern California, and joined the faculty at SUNY-Binghamton in 1981. He was Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge with Professor Lord Jack Lewis in 1989 and was Professor and Dean of Science at the University of Central Lancashire in 1992 -94 and Visiting Professor at the University of York with Professor Robin Perutz in 1997 and 2004-05.
Our research interests are in organometallic photochemistry with a current emphasis on transition-metal photophysics, photochemical mechanisms, photoinitiation and photocatalytic processes in thin film materials and organometallic complexes as spectroscopic probes and sensors. Recent work (funded by the Department of Energy) has included measuring the first available quantitative photochemical data for a number of important intermolecular Si-H and C-H bond activation processes, determining the photochemistry of metal cluster complexes that present new avenues for activation and catalysis, a photochemical investigation of the distinct singlet and triplet excited-state reactivities of W(CO)4(en) (en = ethylenediamine), characterization of the luminescent complex, W(CO)4(4-Me-phen) (phen = 1,10-phenantholine), in room-temperature and low-temperature glassy solutions and in acrylate thin films and demonstrating its usefulness as a spectroscopic probe, exploring the long-wavelength photochemistry of CpFe(CO)2I and facilitating an improved synthetic pathways to azaferrocene, and an investigation of the wavelength-dependence photochemistry of [CpFe(arene)]X (arene = benzene, toluene, napthalene, pyrene; X= PF6, BF4, SbF6, AsF6, CF3SO3), a well- recognized photocatalyst/photoinitiator in thin films. Furthermore, we have recently begun to investigate a number of molecular squares and other configurations involving organometallic species as potential sensors. Our most current research is investigating both inorganic and organic molecules as possible anions sensors. This involves first preparing the compounds and then studying their spectroscopic responses to added anions, including fluoride and cyanide. Detecting such anions is of importance with respect to their environmental issues.
Synthesis and/or physical study (spectroscopy/ photochemistry) of organometallic complexes. Students will have an opportunity to learn FT-IR, UV-vis, fluorescence and photochemical techniques in the research laboratory.
Courses: Introductory Chemistry (107 and 108 or 111) and Analytical Chemistry (221) are recommended.
Students must be highly motivated and willing to devote at least 12-15 hours/week to the research.
"Quantitative Wavelength Dependent Photochemistry of the [CpFe(6-ipb)]PF6 (ipb = isopropylbenzene) Photoinitiator," Vladimír Jakúbek and Alistair J. Lees, Inorg. Chem. 2000, 39, 5779-5786.
"One-Step Self-Assembly Organometallic Molecular Cages from 11 Components," Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Chem. Commun., 2001, 103-104.
"Luminescent Metal Complexes as Spectroscopic Probes of Monomer/Polymer Environments," Alistair J. Lees, in Sensors and Optical Switching Phenomena, V. Ramamurthy and Kirk S. Schanze, Eds.,Molecular and Supramolecular Photochemistry Series, Vol. 7, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001, Chapter 5, 209-255.
"Self-Assembly Organometallic Squares with Terpyridyl Metal Complexes as Bridging Ligands," Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Inorg. Chem., 2001, 40, 3154-3160.
"Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Dinuclear Organometallic Rhenium(I) Diimine Complexes Linked by Pyridine-Containing Macrocyclic Phenylacetylene Ligands," Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Organometallics, 2001, 20, 2353-2358.
"Synthesis, Photophysical Properties and Photoinduced Luminescence Switching of Trinuclear Diimine Rhenium(I) Tricarbonyl Complexes Linked by an Isomerizable Stilbene-Like Ligand," Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Organometallics, 2002, 21, 39-49.
"Synthesis and Electrochemical, Photophysical and Anion Binding Properties of Self- Assembly Heterometallic Cyclophanes," Shih-Sheng Sun, Jason A. Anspach, Alistair J. Lees, and Peter Y. Zavalij, Organometallics, 2002, 21, 685-693. 109.
"Transition Metal Based Supramolecular Systems: Synthesis, Photophysics, Photochemistry and their Potential Applications as Luminescent Anion Chemosensors," Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Coord. Chem. Revs., 2002, 230, 162-183.
"Self-Assembly Transition Metal Based Macrocycles Linked by Photoisomerizable Ligands: Examples of Photoinduced Conversion of Tetranuclear-Dinuclear Squares," Shih-Sheng Sun, Jason Anspach, and Alistair J. Lees, Inorg. Chem., 2002, 41, 1862-1869.
"Highly Sensitive Luminescent Metal-Complex Receptors for Anions through Charge-Assisted Amide ydrogen Bonding," Shih-Sheng Sun, Alistair J. Lees and Peter Y. Zavalij, Inorg. Chem., 2003, 42, 3445-3453.
“Directed Assembly Metallocyclic Supramolecular Systems for Molecular Recognition and Chemical Sensing,” Arvind Kumar, Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Coord. Chem. Revs., 2008, 252, 922-939.
“A Simple Thiourea Based Colorimetric Sensor for Cyanide Ion,” Maurice O. Odago, Diane M. Colabello and Alistair J. Lees, Tetrahedron Letts., 2010, 66, 7565-7461.
"Photoswitching Tetranuclear Rhenium (I) Tricarbonyl Diimine Complexes with a Stilbene-Like Bridging Ligand", Ju-Ling Lin, Chih-Wei Chen, Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Chem. Commun., 2011, 47, 6030-6032.
"Thioamide, Urea and Thiourea Bridged Rhenium(I) Complexes as Luminescent Anion Receptors", Maurice O. Odago, Amanda E. Hoffman, Russell L. Carpenter, Douglas Chi Tak Tse, Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2011, 374, 558-565.
"Anion Sensing by Rhenium(I) Carbonyls with Polarized N-H Recognition Motifs", Kai-Chi Chang, Shih-Sheng Sun and Alistair J. Lees, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2012, 389, 16-28.
Dr. Qiang received his B.S. in Chemistry from Tsinghua University (Beijing, China) in 2004. He obtained his Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 2009 from Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI). His graduate research, which was focused on the application of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in HIV membrane fusion, was conducted under the supervision of Professor David Weliky. He continued as a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institutes of Health after graduation, under the supervision of Dr. Robert Tycko. One of his postdoctoral research was about the spectroscopic studies of fibrillation process in Alzheimer's diseases. Dr. Qiang is joining SUNY-Binghamton University faculty in the spring of 2014.
In general, my research interests focus on the biological and medicinal applications of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and other biophysical techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. There are three distinct projects:
The projects will utilize:
An individual student will pick one of the above projects, and the necessary research training (including background knowledge and experimental techniques) will be given for the student in order to make progress in the project.
Students with high enthusiasm in biologically related science are welcome. 12-15 hours per week of laboratory time are expected. My personal belief is that we make progress in every single experiment, no matter the results are positive or negative.
Qiang, W., Kelley, K., and Tycko, R., "Polymorph-Specific Kinetics and Thermodynamics of β-Amyloid Fibril Growth", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135(18), 6860-6871.
Gabrys, G.W., Qiang, W., Sun, Y., Xie, L., Schmick, S.D., and Weliky, D.P.., "Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13CO to Lipid 31P Proximities Support Similar Partially Inserted Membrane Locations of the α Helical and β Sheet Peptide Structures", J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, ASAP.
Qiang, W., Yau, W.M., Luo, Y., Mattson, M.P., and Tycko, R., "Antiparallel β-sheet architecture in Iowa-mutant β-amyloid fibrils", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2012, 109(12), 4443-4448.
Qiang, W., Yau, W.M., and Tycko, R. "Structural Evolution of Iowa Mutant -Amyloid Fibrils from Polymorphic to Homogeneous States under Repeated Seeded Growth", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133(11), 4018-4029.
Tristram-Nagle, S., Chan, R., Kooijman, E., Uppamoochikka, P., Qiang, W., Weliky, D.P., and Nagle, J.F., "HIV Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, and Softens T-cell Membrane Mimics", J. Mol. Biol., 2010, 402(1), 139-153.
Gabrys, G.M., Yang, R., Wasniewski, C.M., Yang, J., Canlas, C.G., Qiang, W., Sun, Y., and Weliky, D.P., "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for Retention of a Lamellar Membrane Phase with Curvature in the Presence of Large Quantities of the HIV Fusion Peptide", Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 2010, 1798(2), 194-201.
Qiang, W., Sun, Y., and Weliky, D.P., "A Strong Correlation between Fusogenicity and Membrane Insertion Depth of the HIV Fusion Peptide", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2009, 106(36), 15314-15319.
Qiang, W., and Weliky, D.P., "HIV Fusion Peptide and Its Cross-Linked Oligomers: Efficient Syntheses, Significance of the Trimer in Fusion Activity, Correlation of β Strand Conformation with Membrane Cholesterol, and Proximity to Lipid Headgroups", Biochemistry, 2009, 48(2), 289-301.
Qiang, W., Bodner, M.L., and Weliky, D.P., "Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of human immunodeficiency virus fusion peptides associated with host-cell-like membranes: 2D correlation spectra and distance measurements support a fully extended conformation and models for specific antiparallel strand registries", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130(16), 5459-5471.
Qiang, W., Yang, J., and Weliky, D.P., "Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of HIV fusion peptide to lipid distances reveal the intimate contact of β strand peptide with membranes and the proximity of the ala-14-gly-16 region with lipid headgroups", Biochemistry, 2007, 46(17), 4997-5008.
Dr. Rozners received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Riga Technical University (Latvia) in 1990 and 1993, respectively. He was a Postdoctoral Fellow with Prof. Roger Stromberg at Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute (Sweden) from 1994 to 1997 and with Prof. Edwin Vedejs at University of Wisconsin Madison and University of Michigan from 1997 to 2000. Before joining Binghamton University in 2008, Dr. Rozners was Assistant Professor at Northeastern University in Boston.
Prof. Rozners's research interests are in the chemistry and biochemistry of nucleic acids with a focus on elucidation of RNA?s structure and function. The research philosophy is to use organic chemistry as the enabling discipline to create unique model systems and tools for fundamental studies and practical applications in nucleic acid biochemistry, biophysics and biomedicine. The current projects include design, synthesis, and biophysical exploration of RNA analogs having non-phosphorous internucleoside linkages and development of novel RNA binders for biomedical applications. Amide-linked RNA has the structural features of both nucleic acids and proteins and is of particular interest as an intriguing model system to study biopolymer recognition and for design of artificial enzymes and therapeutic agents. Other interesting modifications are RNA analogues having formacetal internucleoside linkages. Modified RNAs have therapeutic potential in antisense, antigene and RNA interference applications. More efficient routes to make highly modified nucleic acid analogs are being sought to make them more readily available for further evaluation.
Prof. Rozners's research is interdisciplinary in nature, involving exploratory studies on synthetic organic methodology including combinatorial chemistry, catalytic enantioselective Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi reaction, total synthesis of natural products and their analogues (e.g., modified RNA and peptides), and the study of biochemical and biophysical properties of the synthesized analogues. Methods such as UV thermal denaturation, fluorescence spectroscopy and osmotic stress are used to characterize modified oligonucleotides.
Zengeya, T.; Gupta, P.; Rozners, E. Triple Helical Recognition of RNA Using 2-Aminopyridine-Modified PNA at Physiologically Relevant Conditions. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 12593-12596
Selvam, C.; Thomas, S.; Abbott, J.; Kennedy, S. D.; Rozners, E. Amides Are Excellent Mimics of Phosphate Linkages in RNA Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 2068-2070.
Li, M.; Zengeya, T.; Rozners, E., Short Peptide Nucleic Acids Bind Strongly to Homopurine Tract of Double Helical RNA at pH 5.5. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 8676- 8681.
Tanui, P.; Kullberg, M.; Song, N.; Chivate, Y.; Rozners, E., Monomers for preparation of amide linked RNA: synthesis of C3'-homologated nucleoside amino acids from D-xylose. Tetrahedron 2010, 66, 4961-4964.
Kolarovic, A.; Schweizer, E.; Greene, E.; Gironda, M.; Pallan, P. S.; Egli, M.; Rozners, E. Interplay of Structure, Hydration and Thermal Stability in Formacetal Modified Oligonucleotides: RNA May Tolerate Nonionic Modifications Better than DNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 14932-14937.
Dr. Sadik received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Wollongong in Australia and did her postdoctoral research at the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) in Las Vegas, Nevada. Dr. Sadik has held appointments at Harvard University, Cornell University and Naval Research Laboratories in Washington, DC. Sadik’s research currently centers on the interfacial molecular recognition processes, sensors and biomaterials, and immunochemistry with tandem instrumental techniques. Sadik’s research utilizes electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques to study human exposure assessment, endocrine disrupters, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials and naturally occurring chemical compounds.
Dr. Sadik was elected as a Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) in 2012 and chaired the first Gordon Research Conference in Environmental Nanotechnology in 2011. Sadik is a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and the recipient of NSF Discovery Corps Senior Fellowship 2005, Distinguished Radcliffe fellowship at Harvard University 2003, outstanding inventor 2002, Chancellor Award for research 2001, and NRC COBASE fellow, 2000. In 2012, Sadik and others launched the Sustainable Nanotechnology Organization (SNO). SNO is a non-profit, international professional society dedicated to advancing sustainable nanotechnology around the world through education, research, and promotion of responsible growth of nanotechnology.
Our research is focused on the basic and applied aspects of bioanalytical, materials and environmental chemistry. We are interested in the design and development of chemical and biological sensors that are inspired by the recognition processes found in nature. Perhaps the best and most sophisticated recognition process is found in the human body. For example, our senses of smell, tastes and ability to respond to temperature variation all occur via living polymer interfaces. Even cellular processes are regulated by cell walls, comprising dynamic macromolecules that are capable of sensing and responding to specific chemical stimuli. Hence, by learning from nature, we are developing smart sensors that can be used for applications in environmental monitoring, homeland security, process control and biomedical testing. Selected projects are discussed below.
The design of biosensors requires the successful immobilization of biological reagents such as antigen, antibody, enzymes, DNA or cells. A number of approaches for immobilizing antibody and dsDNA layers on electrodes have been reported, yet the quest for a molecularly organized, but reproducible immobilization continues to pose a challenge. A major research question is how to design the interface between the transducer and the biospecific layer for efficient molecular recognition. Basic questions include the exact nature of the intermolecular forces at the sensor/biospecific layer and sensor/analyte interfaces, and also whether these forces are responsible for the partial discrimination between different chemical and biochemical compounds. Understanding, engineering and predicting the interactions between molecules require the knowledge of the available types of interactions and a rational design of the sensor chemistries.
In the area of environmental chemistry, we are focused on understanding the mechanisms by which natural and synthetic toxins interact with complex environmental matrices and the biological system. We are also currently funded by the US-EPA under the STAR program to design new nanomaterials for environmental detection and remediation. We have developed new materials for selective removal of certain metals and organics and tested these materials for catalytic conversion of high-valent heavy metals into their low oxidation state equivalents. Research opportunities exist to explore the use nanostructured materials for the rapid conversion of Cr (VI) to Cr(III), design/testing of nanoreactors for environmental monitoring including the understanding of the fate, transport, and transformation of emerging contaminants with cells and complex matrices.
Robert Congdon *Alexander Feldberg, *Natalie Ben-Yakar, Dennis McGee, Omowunmi Sadik, Christopher Ober, Bahgat Sammakia, Early Detection of C. Albicans Biofilms at porous electrodes, Analytical Biochemistry, 433, 192-201, 2013.
Naumih M Noah, Marcells Omole , Samantha Stern*, Siyi Zhang*, Omowunmi A. Sadik, Hess EH, Martinovic J, Baker PG, Emmanuel I Iwuoha; Conducting Poly (amic) acid membranes for sensing and site-directed immobilization of proteins, Analytical Biochemistry, 428, 54-63, 2012.
Veronica A. Okello, Ailing Zhou, Jane Chong*, Michael T. Knipfing*, David Doetschman & Omowunmi A. Sadik, Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium using Naturally0-derived Flavonoids, Environmental Science & Technology, 46 (19), 10743–10751, 2012.
Marcells Omole, Veronica Okello, *Vincent Lee, *Lisa Zhou and Omowunmi Sadik, Catalytic Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium using Nanostructured Polyamic Acid, ACS Catalysis, 1, 139-146, 2011.
Kikandi S. K., Wong Q., Sadik O. A., Varner V. E., Burns S., Size-exclusive Nanosensor for Quantitative Analysis of Fullerene Nanomaterials: A Concept Paper, Environmental Science & Technology, Environmental Science & Technology, 45(2), 5294-5300, 2011.
Naomi Noah, Mwilu Samuel, Sadik O. A., Characterization of inducible nitric oxide synthase using a suite of electrochemical, fluorescence and SPR biosensors; Analytical Biochemistry, 413, 157-163, 2011.
Noami Noah, Samuel Mwilu, Sadik O. A., A. Fatah, Arcilesi R., Immunosensors for Quantifying Cyclooxygenase 2 Pain Biomarkers, Clinica Chimica Acta, 412. 1391-1398, 2011.
Musiliyu A. Musa, Ailing Zhou, and Omowunmi A. Sadik, Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of Coumarin-based Benzopyranone Derivatives Containing a Basic side Chain, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry Vol. 7, No. 2, March Medicinal Chemistry, 7, 112-120, 2011.
Du N., Wong C., *Feurstein, M., Sadik O., Umbach C., Sammakia B., Flexible Conducting Polymers: Effects of Chemical Composition on Structural, Electrochemical and Mechanical Properties, Langmuir, 26(17) 14194-14202, 2010.
Samuel K. Mwilu, Austin O. Aluoch, Seth Miller, Paula Wong & Omowunmi A. Sadik, Alim Fatah, Richard Arcilesi, Identification and Quantitation of Bacillus globigii using Metal-enhanced electrochemical detection and capillary biosensor, Analytical Chemistry, 81, 7561-7570, 2009.
Marcells Omole, Naumih Noah, Anas Almaletti, Sadik Omowunmi, Spectroelectrochemical Biosensors for Monitoring Pain Biomarkers, Analytical Biochemistry, 395, 54-60, 2009.
Sadik O. A., Zhou Ailing, Aluoch A., Status of Biomolecular Recognition using Electrochemical Techniques – Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 24, 2749-2765, 2009.
Eugene Stevens received his B.S. in chemistry from Yale University in 1960 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1965. He was an NSF postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University in 1965-66. He has been at Binghamton since 1977.
We have recently turned our attention to the use of biopolymers for the production of biodegradable plastics. Polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, agar) are abundant renewable biomass polymers, and their use for the production of degradable, biodegradable, and compostable materials conserves nonrenewable fossil resources. It also diverts waste plastics from incinerators and landfills. See my website at http://greenplastics.com.
“Green Plastics. An Introduction to the New Science of Biodegradable Plastics,” E.S. Stevens, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 2002.
“How Green Are Green Plastics?,” E. S. Stevens, BioCycle, December 2002, 42-45.
“What Makes Green Plastics Green?,” E. S. Stevens, BioCycle, March 2003, 24-27.
“Environmentally Degradable Plastics,” E. S. Stevens, Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, 3rd Edition, on-line version, March 2003, print version, September 2003.
“Tensile Strength Measurements on Biopolymer Films,” E. S. Stevens and M. D. Poliks, Journal of Chemical Education, 2003, 80, 810-812.
“Polymer/Plastics Experiments for the Chemistry Curriculum,” E. S. Stevens, K. Baumstein, J.-M. Leahy, and D. C. Doetschman, Journal of Chemical Education, 2006, 83, 1531-1533.
“Thermoplastic Starch-Kraft Lignin-Glycerol Blends,” E. S. Stevens, J. L. Willett, R. L. Shogren, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 2007, 1, 351-359.
“Gelatin Plasticized with a Biodiesel Coproduct Stream,” E. S. Stevens, R. S. Ashby, and D. K. Y. Solaiman, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 2009, 3, 57-61.
“Gelatin Films Plasticized with a Simulated Biodiesel Coproduct Stream,” M. Singh, J. Milano, E. S. Stevens, R. D. Ashby, and D. K. Y. Solaiman, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 2009, 3, 201-206.
"Starch-Lignin Foams," E. S. Stevens, A. Klamczynski, and G. M. Glenn, eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 2010, 4, 311-320.
Dr. Vetticatt received his Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry with Prof. Daniel A. Singleton at Texas A&M University (2005-2009). His doctoral work was focused on the determination of organic reaction mechanisms using a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. He applied these techniques to enzymatic reactions during his postdoctoral research in mechanistic enzymology and drug design with Prof. Vern L. Schramm at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (2009-2011). Following this, he did postdoctoral research in organic synthesis and asymmetric catalysis with Prof. William D. Wulff at Michigan State University (2011-2013). He is joining SUNY-Binghamton as Assistant Professor of Organic Chemistry in the Fall of 2013.
Organocatalysis – catalysis by small organic molecules – is one of the fastest growing research areas in enantioselective synthesis, with over 2000 manuscripts published just within the last decade. Mechanistic understanding of these reaction has followed at a significantly diminished pace. Our research group utilizes a mechanism-based approach to the rational design of enantioselective reactions – with a specific focus on organocatalysis. Experimental and theoretical kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and transition state analysis are used as design tools towards this end. This conceptually novel approach to methodology development is at the cutting-edge of this fast-expanding research area in enantioselective catalysis.
Another aspect of my research program involves an aggressive approach to develop a collaborative research effort focusing on mechanistic studies of contemporary organic reactions. This program gives my students an opportunity to interact with the top synthetic methodology groups around the world. Our collaborators, in turn, benefit from our mechanistic expertise, namely experimental determination of 13C KIEs, interpretation of KIEs using calculations and transition state modeling to understand mechanisms and selectivity in organic reactions. This concerted effort minimizes the time lag between discovery and mechanistic description of new organic reactions.
A third area of research focus involves the ‘transition state analogue’ approach to drug design. We develop transition state models, based on experimental KIEs, for a specific enzyme target. A density functional theory (DFT) based computational approach is utilized to generate libraries of small molecules that could potentially inhibit the activity of the enzyme by mimicking the electrostatics of the relevant transition state. The most promising inhibitor candidates are then synthesized and their efficacy evaluated.
In my lab, students will be trained in experimental and theoretical organic chemistry. Collaborations are an integral part of research in my group. In addition to furthering our research projects, students will be encouraged to identify problems of broad interest and establish independent collaborative efforts to successfully solve these problems. This will give the student an opportunity to showcase his/her expertise while gaining valuable inter-disciplinary research experience.
Vetticatt, M. J.; Itin, B.; Evans, G. B.; Schramm, V. L. Distortional Binding of Transition State Analogues to Human PNP probed by MAS Solid State NMR. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2013, Accepted
Vetticatt, M. J.; Desai A. A.; Wulff, W. D. Isotope Effects and Mechanism of the Asymmetric BOROX Brønsted Acid Catalyzed Aziridination Reaction. in J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 5142–5152.
Burgos, E. S.; Vetticatt, M. J.; Schramm, V. L. Recycling Nicotinamide. The Transition-State Structure of Human Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 3485–3493.
Vetticatt, M. J.; Singleton, D. A. Isotope Effects and Heavy-Atom Tunneling in the Roush Allylboration of Aldehydes. Org. Lett. 2012, 14, 2370–2373.
Silva, R. G.; Vetticatt, M. J.; Merino, E. F.; Cassera, M. B.; Schramm, V. L. Transition-State Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Uridine Phosphorylase-Catalyzed Arsenolysis of Uridine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 9923–9931.
Schwartz, P. A.; Vetticatt, M. J.; Schramm, V. L. Transition State Analysis of the Arsenolytic Depyrimidination of Thymidine by Human Thymidine Phosphorylase. Biochemistry 2011, 50, 1412-1420.
Schwartz, P. A.; Vetticatt, M. J.; Schramm, V. L. Transition State Analysis of Thymidine Hydrolysis by Human Thymidine Phosphorylase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13425-13433.
Vetticatt, M. J.; Desai A. A.; Wulff, W. D. How the Binding of Substrates to a Chiral Polyborate Counterion Governs Diastereoselection in an Aziridination Reaction: H-Bonds in Equipoise. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 13104-13107. (Highlighted in C&EN)
Dr. Whittingham received his B.A., M.A. and D.Phil. degrees in chemistry from Oxford University in England. He did postdoctoral research in materials at Stanford University in California, then worked at Exxon and Schlumberger in basic energy related research before joining the chemistry faculty at SUNY Binghamton in 1988. He is also the Director of the Institute for Materials Research here, and of the Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage at Stony Brook.
The research interests of the Materials Chemistry group are in the preparation and chemical and physical properties of novel inorganic materials and all aspects of nanomaterials. Our long term goals are to solve the energy issues facing the United States.
The Nanochemistry of Materials is one of the two areas of chemistry experiencing the greatest growth at the present time both in academic institutions and industry. This popularity can be associated with the pervasiveness of solids throughout our lives from semiconductors through energy storage to geological/ biological systems, and to a number of recent breakthroughs, including high temperature inorganic superconductors.
One aspect of our work is in finding new synthetic routes to prepare metastable compounds that cannot be prepared by traditional techniques. Primary emphasis is on reacting ions in solution often using large organic species as templates around which he inorganic solid forms. In some cases it is possible to form previously unknown open structures by diffusing ions out of existing structures creating vacant tunnels or layers in which chemistry may be performed or separations/catalysis carried out. These reactions can be followed using electrochemical, x-ray, gravimetric and standard chemical methods, among others.
A second aspect is the study of ionic motion in solids and its use in batteries and fuel cells. Here much emphasis is on the intercalation compounds of the transition metal oxides, and the research involves both high and low temperature chemistry. Of particular interest are the vanadium and manganese oxides, which can be prepared with a variety of layer structures and with tunnels. Different ions and molecules can be intercalated into these structures allowing the controlled modification of chemical and physical properties. In addition these intercalation reactions can be the basis for high energy density storage devices and have the potential for revolutionizing the field of nanoscience.
An interest in chemistry and solids and a desire to go to graduate school in chemistry or materials. The expectation is that you will have taken or are planning to take Chem 341 and 444.
M. Stanley Whittingham, “History, Evolution, and Future Status of Energy Storage”, IEEE Proceedings, 2012, 100: 1518-1534.
Jie Xiao, Xilin Chen, Peter V. Sushko , Maria L. Sushko , Libor Kovarik , Jijun Feng, Zhiqun Deng , Jianming Zheng , Gordon L. Graff , Zimin Nie , Daiwon Choi, Jun Liu , Ji-Guang Zhang, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “High-Performance LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 Spinel Controlled by Mn3+ Concentration and Site Disorder”, Advanced Materials, 2012, 24: 2109–2116.
Zheng Li, Natasha A. Chernova, Jijun Feng, Shailesh Upreti, Fredrick Omenya, and M. Stanley Whittingham “Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries” J. Electrochem. Soc., 2012, 159: A116-A120.
Shailesh Upreti, Natasha A. Chernova, Jie Xiao, Joel K. Miller, Olga V. Yakubovich, Jordi Cabana, Clare P. Grey, Vincent L. Chevrier, Gerbrand Ceder, Janice L. Musfeldt, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “Crystal Structure, Physical Properties, and Electrochemistry of Copper Substituted LiFePO4 Single Crystals”, Chem. Mater., 2012, 24: 166-176.
M. Stanley Whittingham, “Electrochemical energy storage: batteries and capacitors”, in Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Eds. D. S. Ginley and D. Cahen, Published by Cambridge and Materials Research Society, 2011.
Fredrick Omenya, Natasha A. Chernova, Shailesh Upreti, Peter Y. Zavalij, Kyung-Wan Nam, Xiao-Qing Yang, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “Can Vanadium Be Substituted into LiFePO4?”, Chem. Mater., 2011, 23: 4733-4740.
Wenchao Zhou, Shailesh Upreti and M. Stanley Whittingham “Electrochemical performance of Al-Si-Graphite composite as anode for lithium-ion batteries”, Electrochemistry Communications, 2011, 13: 158-161.
Wenchao Zhou, Shailesh Upreti, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “High performance Si/MgO/graphite composite as the anode for lithium-ion batteries”, Electrochemistry Communications, 2011, 13: 1102-1104.
Hui Zhou, Shailesh Upreti, Natasha A. Chernova, Geoffroy Hautier, Gerbrand Ceder, and M. Stanley Whittingham “Iron and Manganese Pyrophosphates as Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries”, Chemistry of Materials, 2011, 23: 293-300.
Hui Zhou, Shailesh Upreti, Natasha A. Chernova and M. Stanley Whittingham, “Lithium cobalt(II) pyrophosphate, Li1.86CoP2O7, from synchrotron X-ray powder data”, Acta Cryst. 2011, E67: i58–i59.
Chunmei Ban, Zheng Li, Zhuangchun Wu, Melanie J. Kirkham, Le Chen, Yoon Seok Jung, E. Andrew Payzant, Yanfa Yan, M. Stanley Whittingham, and Anne C. Dillon “Extremely Durable High-Rate Capability of a LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 Cathode Enabled by Single–Wall Carbon Nanotubes”, Advanced Energy Materials, 2011, 1: 58-62.
Zheng Li, Natasha A. Chernova, Megan Roppolo, Shailesh Upreti, Cole Petersburg, Faisal M. Alamgir, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “Comparative study of the capacity and rate capability of LiNiyMnyCo1-2yO2 (y=0.5, 0.45, 0.4, 0.33)”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2011, 158: A516-A522.
Jie Xiao, Natasha A. Chernova, Shailesh Upreti, Xilin Chen, Zheng Li, Zhiqun Deng, Daiwon Choi, Wu Xu, Zimin Nie, Gordon L. Graff, Jun Liu, M. Stanley Whittingham and Ji-Guang Zhang , “Electrochemical performances of LiMnPO4 synthesized from non-stoichiometric Li/Mn ratio”, Phy. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13: 18099-18106.
Ruigang Zhang and M. Stanley Whittingham “Electrochemical Behavior of the Amorphous Tin–Cobalt Anode”, Electrochem. Solid State Letters, 2010, 13: A184-A187.
Jie Xiao, Natasha A. Chernova, and M. Stanley Whittingham, “Influence of Manganese Content on the Performance of LiNi0.9-yMnyCo0.1O2 (0.45 ≤ y ≤ 0.60) as a Cathode Material for Li-Ion Batteries”, Chem. Mater., 2010, 22: 1180-1185.
Kazuo Eda, Yasuyuki Kato, Yu Ohshiro, Takamitu Sugitani, M. Stanley Whittingham “Synthesis, crystal structure, and structural conversion of Ni molybdate hydrate NiMoO4.nH2O”, J. Solid State Chem., 2010, 183: 1334-1339.
Our research interests are in the interdisciplinary areas of materials science, analytical chemistry, chemical catalysis, and emerging fields of nanotechnology. The overall direction is the design, fabrication, characterization, and application of nanostructured materials and strategies for addressing challenging issues in sustainability of energy production, conversion and storage, and in enabling technologies for sustainable environment and medical diagnostics. Recent examples include fuel cells, rechargeable batteries, functional bioprobes, and flexible chemical sensors.
L. Yang, S. Shan, R. Loukrakpam, V. Petkov, Y. Ren, B. Wanjala, M. Engelhard, J. Luo, J. Yin, Y. Chen, C.J. Zhong, "Role of support-nanoalloy interactions in the atomic-scale structural and chemical ordering for tuning catalytic sites", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2012, 134, 15048−15060.
J. Yin, S. Shan, L. Yang, D. Mott, O. Malis, V. Petkov, F. Cai, M. S. Ng, J. Luo, B. H. Chen, M. Engelhard, C. J. Zhong, "Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites", Chem. Mater., 2012, 24, 4662−4674.
E. Crew, S. Rahman, A. Razzak-Jaffar, D. Mott, M. Kamundi, G. Yu, N. Tchah, J. Lee, M. Bellavia, and C. J. Zhong, "MicroRNA Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles and Cell Transfection", Anal. Chem., 2012, 34, 26-29.
J. Yin, P. Hu, J. Luo, L. Wang, M. F. Cohen, C. J. Zhong, “Thin Film Assembly of Nanoparticles on Flexible Devices: Electrical Conductivity vs. Device Strains in Different Gas/Vapor Environment”, ACS Nano, 2011, 5, 6516 - 6526.
B. Wanjala, B. Fang, J. Luo, Y. Chen, J. Yin, M. Engelhard, R. Loukrakpam, C.J. Zhong, "Correlation between Atomic Coordination Structure and Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Trimetallic Alloy Catalysts", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 12714–12727.
L. Wang, X. Wang, J. Luo, B.N. Wanjala, C. Wang, N. Chernova, M. H. Engelhard, Y. Liu, I.-T. Bae, C. J. Zhong. “Core-Shell Structured Ternary Magnetic Nanocubes ", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2010, 132, 17686–17689.
S. Lim, C.J. Zhong, “Molecularly-Mediated Processing and Assembly of Nanoparticles: Exploring the Interparticle Interactions and Structures”, Acc. Chem. Res., 2009, 42, 798-808.
C.J. Zhong, J. Luo, P. N.Njoki, D. Mott , B. Wanjala, R. Loukrakpam, S. Lim, L. Wang, B. Fang, Z. Xu, “Fuel Cell Technology: Nano-Engineered Multimetallic Catalysts”, Energy & Environ. Sci., 2008, 1, 454–466.
Revised Spring 2003
Individual research under supervision of faculty member. Not limited to chemistry majors. Students must make formal application and receive approval of instructor and Department before the end of the drop/add period.
May be repeated for credit. No more than four credits of CHEM 397 may be used to satisfy major requirements for chemistry. Written report of work required.
NOTE: Chem 397 cannot be used to satisfy the organic, physical or analytical chemistry laboratory requirements for a chemistry major. Four credits of Chem 397 can be used to satisfy the Math-Science elective requirement for the BS degree and the chemistry elective for the BA degree.
Individual research under direct supervision of faculty member. Requires more extensive preparation than CHEM 397. Required for Honors Program in Chemistry.
*If you are considering Honors Program in Chemistry, you should examine the Guidelines early in your Junior year.
Before advanced registration, student must make formal application and receive approval of instructor and department. May be repeated for credit. No more than twelve credits total of CHEM 397 and 497 may be used to satisfy major requirements for chemistry. Written report of work required.
Application and registration procedures are the same as for CHEM 397 and/or 497. In addition, the following guidelines have been established.
Last Updated: 3/31/14