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20:1 - SEXUAL ASSAULT ON CAMPUSES 

 

National Statistics about Sexual Violence on College Campuses 

        

•       One in 4 college-aged women report experiences that meet the legal definitions of rape or attempted rape.
•       One in 5 college women are raped during their college years.
•       80-90% of sexual assaults are perpetrated by individuals known to
the survivor.
•       National Institute of Justice Study: Survivors of rape knew their
attackers as...
Fellow classmates (35%), Friends (34%), Boyfriends or ex-boyfriends
(23%), Acquaintances (2%)
•       Nearly 60% of rapes occur in the survivor's residence hall.
•       Fewer than 5% of attempted/completed rapes are reported to law enforcement...
81% of on-campus and 84% of off-campus sexual assaults are NOT
reported to the police
•       1 in 12 college men admitted to committing acts that met the legal
definition of rape.
•       35% of men report some likelihood that they would rape if they could
be assured they wouldn't be caught or punished.
•       Most survivors of sexual assaults are full-time students.
Approximately one-third of them are first year students between 17-19
years old.
•       In survey of 412 college students, it was found that 11.7% of gay or
bisexual men and 30.6% of the lesbian or bisexual women indicated that
they had been forced to have sex against their will at some point in
their lives.
•       81% of women who were stalked by a current or former partner were
also physically assaulted by that same partner (US Department of
Justice, 1998)
•       More than one in 5 men report "becoming so sexually aroused that
they could not stop themselves from having sex," even though the woman
did not consent.
•       35% of men report some likelihood that they would rape if they could
be assured they wouldn't be caught or punished.
•       81% of on-campus and 84% of off-campus sexual assaults are not
reported to the police.
•       Fewer than 5% of attempted/completed rapes are reported to law enforcement.
•       Nearly 60% of rapes occur in the survivor's residence hall.
•       52% of reported rapes/sexual assaults occur after midnight; 37%
occur between 6pm and midnight.
•       In a survey of students at 171 institutions of higher education,
alcohol was involved in 74% of all sexual assaults.

Courtesy of NYU Student Health Center

 

References

Foubert, J. (2000) The Men's Program: How to Successfully
Lower Men's Likelihood of Raping. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning
Publications, Inc.
Karjane, H.K., Fisher, B.S., and Cullen F.T. (2002) Campus Sexual
Assault: How America's Institutions of Higher Education Respond. Final
Report, NIJ Grant #1999-WA-VX-0008. Newton, MA: Education Development
Center, Inc.
Ottens, A.J. and Hotelling, K. (2001) Sexual Violence On Campus:
Policies, Programs, and Perspectives. New York: Springer Publishing
Company, Inc.
Grants to Reduce Violent Crimes Against Women on Campus 2002. US
Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Violence Against
Women Office. The Sexual Victimization of College Women-Bonnie S.
Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, Michael G. Turner. Bureau of Justice
Statistics, 2000. www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/182369.pdf 

 

Sexual Assault Statistics: Who, What, When and Where

 

How Often Does Rape Happen to Women? 

•       One in Four college women report surviving rape (15 percent) or
attempted rape (12 percent) since their fourteenth birthday. 1
•       In a study by the U.S. Centers for Disease control of 5,000 college
students at over 100 colleges, 20% of women answered "yes" to the
question "In your lifetime have you been forced to submit to sexual
intercourse against your will?" Thus, one in five college women has
been raped at some point in her lifetime. 2
•       In a typical academic year, 3% of college women report surviving
rape or attempted rape. This does not include the summer, when many
more rapes occur. 3
•       In the year 2000, 246,000 women survived rape and sexual assault.
This computes to 28 women every hour. 4
•       A survey of high school students found that one in five had
experienced forced sex (rape). Half of these girls told no one about
the incident. 5
•       Rape is common worldwide, with relatively similar rates of incidence
across countries, with 19%-28% of college women reporting rape or
attempted rape in several countries. In many countries, survivors are
treated far worse than in the U.S. 6

Are Men Raped?

•       3% of college men report surviving rape or attempted rape as a child
or adult. 3
•       In a study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control of 5,000 college
students at over 100 colleges, 4% of men answered "yes" to the
question "In your lifetime have you been forced to submit to sexual
intercourse against your will?" 2     

Who Are the Perpetrators? 

•       99% of people who are raped are men; 60% are Caucasian. 7
•       8% of men admit committing acts that meet the legal definition of
rape or attempted rape. Of these men who committed rape, 84% said that
what they did was definitely not rape. 1
•       Between 62% 4 and 84% 1 of survivors knew their attacker.
•       8% of men admit committing acts that meet the legal definition of
rape or attempted rape. Of these men who committed rape, 84% said that
what they did was definitely not rape. 1
•       More than one in five men report "becoming so sexually aroused that
they could not stop themselves from having sex, even though the woman
did not consent." 8
•       35% of men report at least some degree of likelihood of raping if
they could be assured they wouldn't be caught or punished. 9
•       One out of every 500 college students is infected with HIV, the
virus that causes AIDS. 10
•       First-year students in college tend to believe more rape myths than
seniors. 11
•       Sexual assault offenders were substantially more likely than any
other category of violent criminal to report experiencing physical or
sexual abuse as children. 7
•       In one study, 98% of men who raped boys reported that they were
heterosexual. 12

Who Are the Survivors? 

•       41% of the women who are raped were virgins at the time. 2
•       42% of rape survivors told no one about the rape. 1
•       False reports of rape are rare, according to the FBI, occurring only
8% of the time. 13

Circumstances of Rape 

•       57% of rapes happen on dates. 1
•       75% of the men and 55% of the women involved in acquaintance rapes
were drinking or taking drugs just before the attack. 1
•       About 70% of sexual assault survivors reported that they took some
form of self-protective action during the crime. The most common
technique was to resist by struggling or chase and try to hold the
attacker. Of those survivors who took protective action, over half
believed it helped the situation, about 1/5 believed that it made the
situation worse or simultaneously worse and better. 7
•       84% of rape survivors tried unsuccessfully to reason with the man
who raped her. 1
•       55% of gang rapes on college campuses are committed by fraternities,
40% by sports teams, and 5% by others. 15
•       Approximately 40% of sexual assaults take place in the survivor's
home. About 20% occur in the home of a friend, neighbor, or relative.
10% occur outside, away from home. About 8% take place in parking
garages. 7
•       More than half of all rape and sexual assault incidents occurred
within one mile of the survivor's home or in her home. 7

What Happens After the Rape? 

•       In a study done in the 1980s, 5% of rape survivors went to the police. 1
•       Throughout the last 10 years, the National Crime Victimization
Survey has reported that approximately 30% of rape survivors report
the incident to the police. 4
•       Of those rapes reported to the police (which is 1/3 or less to begin
with), only 16% result in prison sentences. Therefore, approximately
5% of the time, a man who rapes ends up in prison, 95% of the time he
does not. 4
•       42% of rape survivors had sex again with the rapist. 1
•       30% of rape survivors contemplate suicide after the rape. 1
•       82% of rape survivors say the rape permanently changed them. 1
•       The adult pregnancy rate associated with rape is estimated to be 4.7%. 17
 
     

References 

1 Warsaw, R. I Never Called it Rape. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1994.

2 Douglas, K. A. et al. "Results From the 1995 National College Health
Risk Behavior Survey." Journal of American College Health 46 (1997):
55-66.
3 Tjaden, P., and N. Thoennes. "Prevalence, Incidence, and
Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National
Violence Against Women Survey," 2-5, Research in Brief, Washington,
D.C.: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, 1998.
4 Rennison, C. M. "National Crime Victimization Survey, Criminal
Victimization 2001: Changes from 2000-2001 with Trends 1993-2001,"
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice
Statistics, NCJ 187007, 2002.
5 Davis, T. C, G. Q. Peck, and J. M. Storment. "Acquaintance Rape and
the High School Student." Journal of Adolescent Health 14 (1993):
220-24.
6 Koss, M. P., L. Hiese, and N. F. Russo. "The Global Health Burden of
Rape." Psychology of Women Quarterly 18 (1994): 509-37.
7 Greenfeld, L. A. Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data on
Rape and Sexual Assault, Washington, D. C.: U.S. Department of
Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997.
8 Peterson, S. A., and B. Franzese. "Correlates of College Men's
Sexual Abuse of Women." Journal of College Student Personnel 28
(1987): 223-28.
9 Malamuth, N. M. "Rape Proclivity Among Males." Journal of Social
Issues 37 (1981): 138-57.
10 National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Rape Fact Sheet.
Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services.
11 Gray, N. B., G. J. Palileo, G. D. Johnson. "Explaining Rape Victim
Blame: A Test of Attribution Theory." Sociological Spectrum, 13 (1993):
337-92.
12 "Sexual Abuse of Boys," Journal of the American Medical Association,
December 2, 1998.
13 Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reports. Washington,
D.C.: United States Department of Justice, 1995.
14 Koss, M. "Rape on Campus: Facts and Measures." Planning for Higher
Education, 20 (1992): 21-28.
15 O'Sullivan, C. "Acquaintance Gang Rape on Campus." In A. Parrot and
L. Bechhofer (eds.) Acquaintance Rape: The Hidden Crime. New York:
John Wiley and Sons, 1991.
16 Kilpatrick, D. G., C. N. Edmunds, and A. K. Seymour. Rape in
America: A Report to the Nation. National Victim Center, 1992.
17 Homes, M. M., H. S. Resnick, D. G. Kilpartrick, and C. L. Best.
"Rape-related Pregnancy: Estimates and Descriptive Characteristics
From a National Sample of Women." American Journal of Obstetrics and
Gynecology, 175 (1996): 320-24.

 

Sexual Assault National Statistics

 

Sexual Violence is primarily a crime of power and control. It can impact all people, regardless of age, ethnicity, race or economic status. Although younger women represent the majority of victims, not all young women are at equal risk for sexual violence. Additional, there are other populations with high rates of sexual victimization such as Native Americans, immigrants and the elderly that are often voiceless in society and marginalized from medical, legal and social services.

•       In 8 out of 10 rape cases, the victim new the perpetrator.
•       Nearly 1 in 4 women may experience sexual violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime.
•       The cost of rape and sexual assault, excluding child sexual assault, per criminal victimization is $87,000 per year. For the victim, the average rape or attempted rape costs $5,100 in tangible, out-of pocket expenses.
•       One in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will be sexually assaulted by the age of 18.
•       Many long-lasting physical symptoms and illness have been associated with sexual victimization including chronic pelvic pain; premenstrual syndrome; gastrointestinal disorders; and a variety of chronic pain disorders including headache, back pain, and facial pain.
•       Rape victims are more likely than non-victims to smoke cigarettes, overeat, drink alcohol, and are not likely to use seat belts.
•       In a study of elder female sexual abuse victims, 81 percent of the abuse was perpetrated by the victim's primary caregiver, and 78 percent by family members of which 39 percent were sons.
•       Of adult American women who are raped, 31.5 percent are physically injured, but only 35.6% of those who are injured received medical care.
•       Each year, it is estimated 25,000 American women will become pregnant following an act of sexual violence. As many as 22,000 of those pregnancies could be prevented through the prompt use of emergency contraception.
•       There is at least a 50 percent likelihood that a woman will develop Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after being raped. Sexual assault is also closely associated with depression and anxiety disorders.
•       According to a study conducted by the National Victim Center, 1.3 women (age 18 and over) in the United States are forcibly raped each minute. That translates to 78 an hour, 1,871 per day, or 683,000 per year.
•       According to the U.S. Department of Justice, nearly 6 out of 10 rape/sexual assault  incidents are reported by victims to have occurred in their own home or at the home of a friend, relative, or neighbor.
•       51% of the sexual assault cases studied in the Women's Safety Project survey were committed against young women between 16 and 21 years old.
•       In 29% of rapes, the offender used a weapon.
•       According to the U.S. Department of Justice, an estimated 91% of the victims of rape and sexual assault are female and 9% are male. Nearly 99% of the offenders they described in single-victim incidents are male.
•       Rape or sexual assault was the violent crime least often reported to law enforcement (28%).
•       Only 16% of rapes are ever reported to the police. In a survey of victims who do not report rape or attempted rape to the police, the following was found as to why no report was made: 43% thought nothing could be done, 27% felt it was a private matter, 12% were afraid of police response, and 12% felt it was not important enough.
•       13.3% of college women indicated that they had been forced to have sex in a dating situation.
•       In a national survey, 27.7% of college women reported a sexual experience since the age of fourteen that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape, and 7.7% of college men reported perpetrating aggressive behavior which met the legal definition of rape.
•       Among developmentally disabled adults, as many as 83% of the females and 32% of the males are the victims of sexual assault.
•       The National Violence Against Women Survey found that rape is a crime committed primarily against youth. Of the women who reported being raped sometime in their lives, 21.6% were younger than age 12, 32.4% were ages 12 to 17, 29% were ages 18 to 24, and 16.6% were over 25 years old. Thus, 54% of women victims were under age 18 at the time of the first rape and 83% were under the age of 25.
•       Between 1/3 and 2/3 of known sexual assault victims are age 15 or younger. The rate of rapes and sexual assaults against lesbian and gays rose 13% nationally in 1995-1996, approximately twice the 6% rate for all violent crimes.
•       16% of male students surveyed by the Ms. Foundation who had committed rape, and 10% of those who attempted a rape, took part in episodes involving multiple perpetrators.
•       Women with disabilities are raped and abused at a rate at least twice that of the general population of women.
•       An estimated 92,700 men are forcibly raped each year in the United States.
•       77% of completed rapes are committed by someone who is known to the victim.

References

1 Tjaden, P, Thoennes N. "Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and
Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National
Violence Against Women Survey," Washington (DC): National Institute of
Justice; 2000. Report NCJ 183781.
2 The World Health Report Fact Sheet on Sexual Violence, 2002.
3 Milled, Ted, et al. "Victims Costs and Consequences: A New Look,"
National Institute of Justice Report, US Department of Justice, 1996.
4 Finkelhor, David, et al. "Sexual Abuse in a National Survey of Adult
Men and Women: Prevalence, Characteristics and Risk Factors," Child
Abuse and Neglect, 1990.
5 Koss, MP, Heslet L. "Somatic Consequences of Violence Against
Women." Archives of Family Medicine, 1992.
6 Koss, MP, Koss, PG, Woodruff, W. "Deleterious Effects of Criminal
Victimization on Women's Health and Medical Utilization." Archives of
Internal Medicine, 1991.
7 Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly. "Elder Sexual Abuse: Preliminary Findings."
Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 1991.
8 Tjaden, P, Thoennes N. Ibid. 2000.
9 Stewart, Felicia and Trussel, James. "Prevention of Pregnancy
Resulting from Rape." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2000.
10 "Populations Reports: Ending Violence Against Women" Populations
Information Program, Center for Communication Programs. The Johns
Hopkins University School of Public Health, December 1999.
11 Kilpatrick, DJ, Edmunds, CN and Seymour, A. 1992. Rape in America:
A Report to the Nation, Arlington, VA: National Victim Center.
12 Greenfield, Lawrence A. 1997. "Sex Offenses and Offenders: An
Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault," Washington, DC: Bureau of
Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of
Justice.
13 Randall, Melanie and Haskell, Lori. 1995. "Sexual Violence in
Women's Safety Project, A Community-Based Survey, Violence Against
Women 1 (1): 6-31.
14 Violence Against Women, Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department
of Justice, 1994.
15 Ibid.
16 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000. Criminal Victimization 1999:
Changes 1998-1999 with Trends 1993-99. National Crime Victimization
Survey. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of
Justice.
17 Kirkpatrick, et al., 1992.
18 Johnson, I, Sigler R, 2000. "Forced Sexual Intercourse Among
Intimates," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(1).
19 Koss, MP, Gidyez, KA, and Wisniewski, N. "The Scope of Rape:
Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a
National Sample of Higher Education Students," Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology, 1987:55 (2) 162-170.
20 Stimson, L and Best MC. "Courage Above All," Sexual Assault Against
Women with Disabilities. Toronto Disabled Women's Network, Canada,
1991.
21 Tjaden, Patricia and Thoennes, Nancy. November 1998. Prevalence,
Incidence and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from
the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, DC: National
Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of
Justice.
22 "Population Information Program. Population Reports: Ending Violence
Against Women, 2000." Population Information Program, Center for
Communications Programs. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and
Center for Healthcare Gender Equity.
23 Anti Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence Report, New
York City Gay & Lesbian Anti-Violence Project, 1996.
24 Warshaw, Robin. 1994. I Never Called It Rape, The Ms. Report on
Recognizing, Fighting and Surviving Date & Acquaintance Rape, New
York: Harper Perennial.
25 Sobsey. D, 1994. "Violence and Abuse in the Lives of People with
Disabilities," The End of Silent Acceptance, Baltimore, MD: Paul H.
Brooks Publishing Co, Inc.
26 Tjaden and Thoennes, November 1998.
27 Greenfield, Lawrence A. 1997. Sex Offenses and Offenders: An
Analysis of Data on Rape and Sexual Assault, Washington, DC: Bureau of
Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of
Justice.

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Last Updated: 6/24/14