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Asked by: Haleigh Smith
School: St. James Middle School
Grade: 8
Teacher: Mr. Martinkovic

Dancing, cheerleading, music and shopping

Career Interest: Pediatric oncologist


Answered by: Susannah Gal
Title: Associate Professor
Department: Biological Sciences
About Scientist:

Research area: Cancer cell biology, protein labeling and DNA computing

Additional interests: Science and religion interaction, presentations to school and community groups on DNA topics

PhD schools: Joint program at Johns Hopkins University and the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences, National Institutes of Health

Family: Husband and daughters, 19 and 14

Interests/hobbies: Contra dancing, music and travel

Web page address:  


Date: 05-02-2011

Question: How does cancer form?


That's a good question and one currently being studied by many laboratories all over the world. Cancer cells form from normal cells when certain genes (sequences of DNA) are changed so that the way the cells grow (or die) is altered. Normal cells divide or reproduce until they touch another cell. Then they stay in a state of "suspended animation," not dividing but still alive. 

Cancer cells are altered in genes that control the growth process, so they keep dividing even when they touch other cells. Also most normal cells die after a certain number of cell divisions. We think that this is controlled in part by DNA sequences located at the ends of chromosomes. Cancer cells can also form when genes controlling the cell death process are altered. Then the cancer cells don't die as normal cells do.

There are 3 main types of genes that can change to form cancer cells from normal cells. They're like parts of a car. Some of these are like a car's accelerator, but stuck giving gas even if you want the car to stop, called oncogenes. There are other genes like a car's brakes that when altered, don't work to stop the car. These genes are called tumor suppressors. The third type are genes like a car mechanic keeping the car running smoothly. When these genes are altered, this can result in DNA changes to the oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Usually cancer forms when there are changes to a few of these kinds of genes, not just one.

A lot of cancer research, including the work being done in my laboratory at Binghamton University (, studies these gene changes and how those result in cancer. We hope to develop diagnostic ways to analyze cancer cells and new drugs to help block cancer cells from growing. Maybe someday you can help with that work.

Ask a Scientist appears Thursdays. Questions are answered by faculty at Binghamton University.  Teachers in the greater Binghamton area who wish to participate in the program are asked to write to Ask A Scientist, c/o Binghamton University, Office of Communications and Marketing, PO Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 or e-mail Check out the Ask a Scientist Web site at To submit a question, download the submission form(.pdf, 460kb).

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Last Updated: 6/22/10