Health Sciences collaboration grant awards from prior years
The following projects were awarded funds through a competitive, peer-reviewed program, with the goal of encouraging faculty to develop collaborative projects that stimulate the advancement of new ideas that can build Binghamton University's expertise toward a national reputation in the broad area of health sciences.
- Is Atopic Dermatitis a Result of S. Aureus Infection due to Stratum Corneum Lipid
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an important chronic inflammatory skin disease that often precedes the onset of allergic disorders. In recent years it has been demonstrated that patients with AD have reduced levels of ceramides in their outermost layer of skin, or stratum corneum, and a predisposition to infection and colonization by microbial organisms, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Currently the mechanisms that lead to the onset of AD remain poorly understood. The goal of this research is to establish the effects of lipid depletion in human stratum corneum on the ability of S. aureus bacteria to cause atopic dermatitis. This work will bring together Dr. Cláudia Marques and Dr. Guy German on a trans-disciplinary project that focuses on skin susceptibility to disease due to the pathogenesis of the bacteria S. aureus. An improved understanding of the relevance of bacterial colonization to the onset of AD has the potential to reevaluate existing treatments and act as a building block for establishing new methods of prevention. Establishing methods to prevent or reduce AD will improve population health and is likely provide new insight into the onset of other dry skin disorders and diseases where cracking and lesions form.
Principal investigators/departments: Guy German, Department of Bioengineering, and Claudia Marques, Department of Biological Sciences
- A Machine Learning-Based Approach for Optimizing the Discovery of Brain-Based Risk
Markers for Psychiatric Illness
The goal of identifying brain-based markers of risk for future psychiatric illness continues to elude investigators despite its high clinical importance. To address this challenge, we will develop a set of methodological tools for the automated discovery of brain-based risk markers that predict psychiatric status with high accuracy. In this interdisciplinary proposal we apply technical resources derived from clinical neuroscience, complex network analysis and bioinformatics to the analysis of spontaneous brain electrical rhythms collected from hundreds of children and adolescents falling within an age range that is critical for the emergence of psychiatric problems. Regional and network measures of neural function will be extracted from continuous brain signals to serve as potential predictors of clinical status on standardized psychiatric assessments. An automated, data driven approach based on machine learning algorithms will then sort through the brain signal patterns and select specifically those multivariate neurophysiological features with the greatest accuracy in predicting psychiatric outcomes. The combination of neuroscience technology with tools derived from bioinformatics and systems engineering holds great promise for novel breakthroughs in improving the accuracy of prognosis, diagnosis, and timely intervention to alleviate the immense health care costs of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and substance abuse.
Principal investigators/departments: Vladimir Miskovic, Department of Psychology; Brandon Gibb, Department of Psychology; Chun-An Chou, Department of Systems Science and Industrial Engineering; and Hiroki Sayama, Department of Bioengineering
- Investigating Bacterial Biofilm Formation and Toxin Trafficking Using Microfluidic
Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) play important roles in acute and chronic human infections. They are ubiquitous, representing an important yet understudied contributor to the virulence of many pathogens. As we begin to unravel the mechanisms bacteria use to package and launch these microscopic weapons, we face significant limitations in our ability to study them on a molecular level. This is because, although all biological membranes have asymmetric lipid distribution, existing technologies are incapable of creating synthetic membranes with complex structure. Available membrane models are poor physiological mimics; particularly when studying the bacterial outer membrane, which is strongly asymmetric. This motivates the proposed interdisciplinary collaboration between biology and mechanical engineering. High-throughput microfluidics and interfacial self-assembly will be used to build asymmetric synthetic vesicles with controlled lipid composition in each leaflet of the bilayer membrane. Along with rapid production and asymmetric membranes, this technology allows for the size, uniformity, luminal content, and unilamellarity of the vesicles to be tightly controlled. Access to physiologically-relevant OMV-mimics will enable us to study the importance of OMVs to the biofilm lifestyle (given their abundance in the biofilm extracellular matrix). Going forward, mass-produced OMV-like biological nanoparticles will be useful in advancing vaccine development and drug delivery.
Principal investigators/departments: Jeffrey Schertzer, Department of Biological Sciences, and Paul Chiarot, Department of Mechanical Engineering
- Design Optimization of Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
Bioresorbable scaffolds are an attractive alternative to bone grafts for replacing missing bone resulting from complex fractures or bone tumors. These scaffolds dissolve over time, and are designed to allow in-growth of new bone tissue which eventually replaces the scaffold. As of yet, the design of these scaffolds, in terms of microstructure and overall shape, has not been optimized such that healing time is minimized, the new bone has adequate mechanical strength, and the final bone structure has the correct (anatomical) shape. We hypothesize that a rigorous and systematic design technique called multiobjective design optimization (MDO) will allow us to examine the relationship between these performance measures and create patient-optimized bone scaffold designs. This research will use a computational model for predicting bone growth and scaffold resorption, which will be validated against companion experimental results where bone will be grown in 3D scaffold prototypes. The model will then be used to design patient-optimized scaffolds using MDO. The resulting design optimization technique will be an important tool for patient-specific bone scaffold design.
Principal investigators/departments: Ryan Willing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Kaiming Ye, Department of Bioengineering
- A New Strategy to Prevent Neoronal Glutamate Excitotoxicity
Glutamate transporters play essential roles in controlling the levels of the neuro-transmitter glutamate in the normally-functioning mammalian brain. When energy supply to neurons is interrupted, as encountered under ischemic conditions, glutamate transporters reverse their transport direction, releasing glutamate into the extracellular space instead of taking it up. This uncontrolled glutamate release can result in the widespread death of neurons. The long-term goal of the present collaborative project between the Werner and Grewer laboratories is to explore new strategies to prevent glutamate-induced excitotoxicity under conditions of energy deprivation, potentially leading to new avenues to combat stroke. Specifically, our aim is to develop cell- permeable, competitive inhibitors that selectively block glutamate release by reverse transport, without minimally affecting glutamate uptake under physiological conditions. Preliminary results based on a compound we have already synthesized show that glutamate release can be blocked in a model system. Conceptually and methodologically, the proposed research is innovative because we expect to identify novel methods and strategies for modulation of the glutamate release rate. The expected results could be ultimately used to extend existing, or devise new strategies, to reduce the destructive role of glutamate release through glutamate reverse transport in neurodegenerative disease and stroke.
Principal investigators/departments: Christof Grewer, professor of chemistry, and David Werner, assistant professor of psychology
- Eating for 100 Trillion: The Gut Microbiome, Food Additives and Metabolic Disorders
Metabolic disorders are some of the most pressing health-related challenges. Approximately
35 percent of American adults and 17 percent of children are clinically obese, and
obese individuals have an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary
heart disease. Obesity was estimated to have increased overall healthcare costs in
the United States by $147 billion in 2008 alone. Recent studies have observed associations
between the gut microbiome and metabolic disorders, and nanoparticles may be an environmental
factor contributing to metabolic disorders through gut microbiome changes. The long-term
goal of this work is to develop and utilize in vivo and in vitro systems to study
ingested compound toxicity, genetic susceptibility, the role of the gut microbiome
and the molecular mechanisms underlying genotype-by-environment interactions affecting
metabolic disorders. This project will allow us to investigate how environmental nanoparticle
exposure affects the gut microbiome and interacts with genetic variation in populations
to influence disease susceptibility. Understanding these relationships, and the mechanisms
that drive them, is critical for the development of prevention and intervention strategies
at the policy, behavioral and biological levels; and this transdisciplinary work is
relevant to the Health Sciences Steering Committee's Themes 1 and 4: Disease Susceptibility,
Pathogenesis and Prevention and Individualized Therapeutics.
Principal investigators/departments: Gretchen Mahler, assistant professor of bioengineering, and Anthony Fiumera, associate professor of biological sciences
- A Novel Mobile Human-Computer Interaction Approach Based on Wearable Eye-Controlled Glasses for Assisted Living and Health Care
Human computer interaction (HCI) has gained widespread attention because of the increasing
demands to interact with computers in a human cognitive sense. Nonconventional HCIs
show great potential for controlling computers and smart appliances, which is of particular
significance to people with disabilities requiring hands-free alternatives. The movement
of the eyes contains a rich source of information and has been widely used as a tool
to investigate visual cognition. In this study, we propose a new HCI paradigm, taking
advantage of the recent glass-style wearable computing technology. Specifically, we
will embed miniaturized dry sensors placed inside the glass arms, which will record
eye movements through the measurement of electrooculograph (EOG) signals, and enable
users to control the glass or wirelessly tethered devices via intentional eye movements.
The aim of the proposed work is to explore a synergistic solution of a truly wearable,
eye-controlled mobile HCI device, which can be seamlessly extended to a hands-free
assistive control system for people with disabilities or special needs. Proposed research
activities include developing a user-friendly, glass-style EOG acquisition system,
recognizing and distinguishing various types and levels of eye movements, and investigating
a comprehensive eye-movement encoding language for eye-controlled HCI applications.
Principal investigators/departments: Zhanpeng Jin, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, and Sarah Laszlo, assistant professor of psychology
- Development of a Nanodelivery System for Enhanced Treatment of Biofilm-Related Infections
A new collaborative project between Dr. Amber Doiron (Bioengineering Department) and
Dr. Karin Sauer (Biological Sciences Department) was funded by the 2013 Health Sciences
Transdisciplinary Area of Excellence. The project brings together Dr. Sauer's expertise
in biofilms and Dr. Doiron's expertise in nanoparticle drug delivery formulations.
Surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms pose significant problems
in medicine due to their resistance to killing by antibiotics. Recent evidence suggests
that microcolony formation, which is the first step of biofilms formed by Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, requires a specific metabolite. Our primary objective is to develop a
nanoparticle for co-delivery of agents targeting this metabolite and other aspects
of the biolfilm and that may have clinical applications related to health concerns
caused by biofilms. Findings from this research are anticipated to be translational
with respect to treatment of biofilm infections in wounds and to enable a collaborative
proposal to be submitted to the NIH or the DOD in the near future.
Principal investigators/deartments: Amber Doiron, assistant professor of bioengineering, and Karin Sauer, professor of biological sciences