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Timeline CA 700-1500

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Africa and the Middle East The Americas East Asia India and Southeast Asia Europe

Ethiopian Christianity

Abbasid Dynasty, 750-1258; Islamic capital moved to Baghdad

Decline of Ethiopia, ca 9th century

Kingdom of Ghana, ca 900-1100

Mahmud of Ghanza, 998-1030

"Time of Troubles" in Mesoamerica, 800-1000

Toltec Empire

Taika Reform Edict in Japan, 655

Nara era, creation of Japan's first capital, 710-784

Heian era in Japan, 794-1185; literary flowering

Era of the Five Dynasties in China, 907-960; warfare, revolt

Song Dynasty, 960-1279

Khmer Empire (Kampuchea) founded, 802

Charles the Great (Charlemagne), 768-814

Invasions of Carolingian Empire, 9th-10th centuries


Islam penetrates sub-Saharan Africa, ca 11th century

Kingdom of Benin, ca 1100-1897

Kingdom of Mali, middle Niger region, ca 1200-1450

Mongol invasion of Middle East, ca 1220

Inca civilization in South America, ca 1000-1500

Aztecs arrive in Valley of Mexico, ca 1325

Vietnam gains independence from China, ca 1000

China divided between empires of Song (south) and Jin (north), 1127

Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333

Mongol conquest of China, 1215-1368

Construction of Angkor Wat, ca 1100-1150

Muslim conquerors end Buddhism in India, 1192

Peak of Khmer Empire in southeast Asia, ca 1200

Turkish sultanate at Delhi, 1206-1526; Indian culture divided into Hindu and Muslim

Yaroslav the Wise, 1019-1054; peak of Kievan Russia

Schism between Latin and Greek churches, 1054

Norman conquest of England, 1066

The Crusades, 1096-1270

Growth of trade and towns, 12th-13th centuries

Frederick Barbarossa invades Italy, 1154-1158


Kingdom of Mali, ca 1200-1450

Mongols conquer Baghdad, 1258; fall of Abbasid Dynasty

Maya civilization in Central America, ca 300-1500

Inca civilization in South America, ca 1000-1500

Toltec hegemony, ca 1000-1300

Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333

Unsuccessful Mongol invasions of Japan, 1274, 1281

Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, 1279-1368

Peak of Khmer Empire in southeast Asia, ca 1200

Turkish sultanate at Delhi, 1206-1526; Indian culture divided into Hindu and Muslim

Magna Carta, 1215

Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, 1253

Prince Alexander Nevsky recognizes Mongol overlordship of Moscow, 1252


Rise of Yoruba states, West Africa, ca 1300

Height of Swahili (East African) city-states, ca 1300-1500

Mansa Musa rules Mali, 1312-1337

Travels of Ibn Batuta

Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) founded by Aztecs, 1325

Marco Polo arrives at Kublai Khan's court, ca 1275

Ashikaga Shogunate, 1336-1408

Hung Wu drives Mongols from China, 1368; founds Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644

Mongol chieftain Timur the Lame (Tamerlame) conquers Punjab, 1398

Hundred Years' War, 1337-1453

Bubonic plague, 1347-1700

Ottoman Empire invades Europe, 1356

Peasants' Revolt in England, 1381


Zara Yakob rules Ethiopia, 1434-1468

Arrival of Portugese in Benin, ca 1440

Songhay Empire, West Africa, ca 1450-1591

Atlantic slave trade, ca 1450-1850

Ottoman Empire, 1453-1918

Vasco da Gama arrives on East African coast, 1498

Height of Inca Empire, 1438-1493

Reign of Montezuma I, 1440-1468; height of Aztec culture

Columbus reaches the Americas, 1492

Early Ming policy encourages foreign trade, ca 15th century

Ming maritime expeditions to India, Middle East, Africa, 1405-1433

Sultan Mehmed II, 1451-1481

Pash Sinon, Ottoman Architect, 1491-1588

Vasco da Gama reaches India, 1498

Beginnings of representative government, ca 1350-1500

Italian Renaissance, ca 1400-1530

Voyages of discovery, ca 1450-1600

Ottomans capture Constantinople, 1453; end of Byzantine Empire

War of the Roses in England, 1455-1485

Reconquest of Spain completed, 1492


Portugal dominates East Africa, ca 1500-1650

Safavid Empire in Persia, 1501-1722

Ottoman conquest of Middle East

Peak of Ottoman Power under Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520-1566

Height of Kanem-Bornu under Idris Alooma, 1571-1603

Portuguese found Angola, 1571

Battle of Lepanto, 1571

South American holocaust, ca 1500-1600

First African slaves, ca 1510

Cortes arrives in Mexico, 1519; Aztec Empire falls, 1521

Pizarro reaches Peru, 1531; conquers Incas

Spanish conquer the Philippines, 1571

Portuguese trade monopoly in East Asia, ca 16th century

Christian missionaries active in China and Japan, ca 1550-1650

Unification of Japan, 1568-1600

Babur defeats Delhi sultanate, 1526-1527; founds Mughal Empire

Akbar expands Mughal Empire, 1556-1605

Martin Luther, Ninety-Five These, 1517

Charles V elected Holy Roman Emperor, 1519

Henry VIII leads English Reformation, 1534

Council of Trent, 1545-1563

Dutch United Provinces declare independence, 1581

Spanish Armada, 1588

© 1998 Research Foundation of the State University of New York at Binghamton

Last Updated: 8/12/16