Binghamton University is vulnerable to a number of natural and human-caused hazards that can affect University property and faculty, staff, students and visitors. To effectively respond to these natural and human-caused hazards, the University has adopted this Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) to guide response efforts. The priorities for this plan are to (1) protect lives; (2) stabilize the incident; (3) minimize environmental and property damage; and (4) continue critical services to customers. This plan also strives to meet National Incident Management System-Incident Command System (NIMS ICS) requirements as established by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The use of NIMS ICS enables this response plan to coordinate effectively with other jurisdictions involved in a response.
The purpose of Binghamton University CEMP is to outline the management structure, responsibilities, procedures and guiding policies to assist the University when responding to an emergency event. The CEMP directs response efforts when Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) developed by University departments and units are insufficient to handle an emergency. Department-specific plans and Standard Operating Procedures are meant to complement and coordinate overall efforts while providing more depth and specific detail regarding department-level response.
The Binghamton University CEMP is a University-level plan covering property owned by Binghamton University and the faculty, staff, students and visitors associated with Binghamton University. This CEMP is designed to address a comprehensive range of natural and manmade hazards that could affect Binghamton University property. The plan includes procedures for responding to a range of levels of emergency regardless of the size, type or complexity.
The Binghamton University CEMP supersedes any previous plans and precludes employee actions not in concert with the intent of this plan or the emergency response organizations created by it. This plan supersedes and rescinds all previous editions of Binghamton University emergency management plans. If any portion of this plan is held invalid by judicial or administrative ruling, such ruling shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this plan.
Nothing in this plan should be construed in a manner that limits the use of good judgment and common sense in matters not foreseen or covered by the elements of this plan or its appendices.
Nothing in this plan is intended or should be construed as creating a duty on the part of Binghamton University toward any party for the purpose of creating a potential tort liability.
This plan is promulgated under the authority of the president of Binghamton University.
- Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, Public Law (PL) 81-950 as amended.
- The Disaster Relief Act of 1974, PL 93-288 as amended.
- Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, PL 93-288, as amended by PL 100-707.
- Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), PL 99-499 as amended.
- Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 44. Emergency Management Assistance.
- Executive Order (EO) 12148 of July 20, 1979, as amended, Federal Emergency Management.
- EO 12472 of April 3, 1984, Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness Telecommunications Functions
- EO 12656 of November 18, 1988, Assignment of Emergency Preparedness Responsibilities.
- Federal Preparedness Circular 8, June 22, 1989, Public Affairs in Emergencies.
10. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5, February 28, 2003, Management of Domestic Incidents
- NYS Executive Law Article 2B.
- NYS Executive Order #26.1 (adoption of NIMS)
- Management Procedures Series 800
Situation and Assumptions
Binghamton University property, students, staff and visitors can be exposed to a number of hazards with the potential to disrupt the University, create damage and cause casualties. The following situation and assumptions provide an overview of a potential emergency situation at Binghamton University and the assumed operational conditions that provide a foundation for establishing protocols and procedures.
Binghamton University can vary in the number of faculty, staff, students and visitors located on University property depending on the time of day and event. The University has a student enrollment of over 17,800 and approximately 5,000 employees. The majority of these students, faculty and staff may be on campus at a given time. In addition, Binghamton University draws large gatherings for special events at the Events Center (10,000-person capacity), the Anderson Center for the Performing Arts (1,600-person capacity) as well as other campus venues.
A number of natural hazards can affect the Binghamton University campus. These include:
- Severe weather
In addition, threat of technological and biological hazards; those caused by human omission or error such as transportation accidents, fire, hazardous materials incidents; or utility failures are also possible. A civil disturbance or terrorism incident could also occur. Binghamton University draws large crowds to the Events Center and the Anderson Center for the Performing Arts, which are potential targets for intentional criminal acts. The global nature of Binghamton University business, programs and travel to and from other continents elevates the risk of exposure to communicable diseases.
The following assumptions are relevant to the implementation of this plan.
- Binghamton University recognizes the importance of managing emergencies in accordance with the plan and has provided the resources for effective implementation.
- Departments and individuals with emergency-related assignments have been trained and understand their roles and responsibilities.
- Emergencies may occur at any time, day or night, weekend or holiday, with little or no warning.
- The succession of events in an emergency is not entirely predictable; hence this plan serves as a guide and may require field modification in order to meet the requirements of the event.
- The magnitude or severity of an emergency may exceed the campus’s ability to respond. In those cases, it may be necessary to rely on the assistance of external resources for response, mitigation and recovery.
- Critical lifeline utilities may be interrupted including water delivery, electrical power, natural gas, telephone communications, microwave and repeater-based radio systems, cellular telephones and information systems.
- Regional and local services may not be available.
- Major roads, overpasses, bridges and local streets may be damaged/impassable.
- Buildings and structures including homes may be damaged.
- Unsafe conditions including structural and toxic environments may exist.
- Damage may cause injuries and displacement of people.
- Normal suppliers may not be able to deliver materials.
- Contact with family and homes may be interrupted.
- People may become stranded at the University and conditions may be unsafe to travel from University property.
- The University will need to conduct its own, rapid damage assessment, situation analysis and deployment of on-site resources and management of emergency operations on campus from the Campus EOC while emergency conditions exist.
- Communication and exchange of information will be one of the highest priority operations at the Campus EOC. The inter/intranets may be down.
Emergency Response Priorities
Priorities for all emergency response at Binghamton University are as follows:
1) Protection of life
a) Emergency response personnel
b) At-risk people
c) General public
2) Stabilization of the event
a) Isolate the scene and deny entry.
b) Determine course of action.
c) Prevent the incident from expanding.
d) Bring the situation to a point of order.
3) Protect University property
a) Facilities used for emergency response are high priority.
b) Facilities necessary for shelter and care of students are a high priority.
c) Critical University records, collections and research.
d) Facilities used for education and operational purposes.
4) Protect the environment
a) Confine, contain or neutralize hazardous materials that may be released.
b) Ensure to the extent practical that emergency response efforts do not adversely impact the environment.
5) Restoration of critical services, education and research programs.
a) Services necessary for emergency response are of high priority.
b) Services critical to the well-being of students are of high priority.
c) Services critical to the integrity of research projects and educational services.
National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS)
The Binghamton University CEMP follows the requirements set forth by the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The NIMS provides a nationwide template enabling federal, state, local, and tribal governments and private sector nongovernmental organizations to work together effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from domestic incidents regardless of cause, size or complexity. Using the NIMS at Binghamton University enables the University to communicate and coordinate response actions with other jurisdictions and emergency response agencies.
When necessary and appropriate, this plan shall follow policies and procedures of the National Response Framework (NRF).
The Binghamton University CEMP also follows the Incident Command System (ICS), which is the emergency management structure used by NIMS for emergency response. Using ICS allows for improved coordination among individual departments and agencies as they respond to an incident.
The benefits of the ICS process are:
a) Forty-year history of successful implementation for emergency response management in the field.
b) Fifteen-year history as the International (Global) Standard for Emergency Management organization.
2) Proven best practices in emergency management
a) Flexibility in application allows for scale-up, scale-down and transition.
b) Team-based, bundled and linked processes and cross-functional efficiency within the organization.
c) Easy-to-understand for the users.
d) Action-oriented and focuses on results and output.
e) Starts and stops are designed for rapid deployment and smooth de-activation.
f) Wide application to unique settings.
3) Aligned with adjacent and contiguous agencies
a) Standardized functions.
b) Standardized processes.
The director of emergency management or his/her designee shall be responsible for the coordination of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) into Binghamton University preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery initiatives.
Multi-Agency Coordination System (MACS)
MACS is a component of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under “Command and Management.” Elements of command and management include the following topics:
- Incident Command System
- Multi-agency Coordination Systems
- Public Information
MACS is a process that allows all levels of government to work together more effectively. This coordination occurs across different disciplines and can occur on a regular basis whenever personnel from different agencies interact. MACS is not simply a physical location or facility; rather, it is a system that defines business practices, operating procedures and protocols. MACS provides support, coordination and assistance.
Purpose of MACS
- To establish and clarify policy.
- To help establish a common operating picture.
- To set priorities among incidents and resolve critical resource issues.
- To facilitate logistics support and resource tracking.
- To synchronize messaging to ensure that we are speaking with one voice.
Primary MAC functions
- Situation assessment
- Incident priority determination
- Critical resource acquisition and allocation
- Interagency activities
- Other coordination
MAC System Elements
- Provides reliable systems and resources.
- Acquires, analyzes and communicates information.
- Is flexible in supporting the command structure.
- Anticipates change.
- Promotes public confidence.
Binghamton University shall work with Broome County Office of Emergency Services and all other external partners to coordinate and support the development and use of integrated Multi-Agency Coordination Systems (MACS) as necessary.
Binghamton University shall conduct a hazard analysis as a basis for all emergency planning efforts. A hazard analysis is used as the first step in a process used to assess risk. The result of a hazard analysis is the identification of different type of hazard. A hazard analysis serves as a needs assessment for the emergency management program and allows the University to identify gaps and create priorities.
Binghamton University shall conduct additional hazard analyses when the data from the previous analysis is determined to be out-of-date, when campus conditions change or whenever necessary as determined by the director of emergency management or his/her designee.