During the campaign of 1777, British Lt. Gen. John Burgoyne's army pushed American forces from the Champlain Valley and into the Hudson River Valley. Following two stunning defeats at the Battle of Freeman’s Farm on September 19 and the Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, Burgoyne's army was forced to retreat north into the village of Saratoga beginning in the late hours of October 9, taking up a defensive position north of Fish Creek. Over the next two days the American Army and militia under the command of Gen. Horatio Gates tightened its grip around the entrenched British Army and cut off all chances of escape. Running low on food, water, and supplies and under constant fire from American artillery batteries, Burgoyne entered into negotiations for the surrender of his army. The Articles of Convention were signed October 17 marking the end of Burgoyne's northern campaign. The defeated British Army was marched from Saratoga to Boston where they spent the remainder of the war as prisoners. The British defeat and surrender at Saratoga changed the landscape of the war and was instrumental in convincing France to formally support America's War of Independence.